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Robert Vincent
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I use Accordance daily because I read through the Greek New Testament every year, and I am currently studying Genesis in both the Hebrew and Greek texts, copying and pasting my notes in an e-mail to myself. Yesterday I received J. Diggle et al. (2021), The Cambridge Greek Lexicon, vol. I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), and am requesting that Accordance produce a digital copy. 

Below is a sample of what I do, but I had to type out this new lexicon:
διασκεδάννυμι, vb. 1. Dismiss, disband. 2. Scatter, disperse (RBV: NETS uses this). 3. (of the wind) scatter. 4. (of persons) shatter, smash. 5. Break up, put an end to, get rid of, destroy. J. Diggle et al. (2021), The Cambridge Greek Lexicon, vol. I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 362.
Bob/Robert Benn Vincent, Sr.

 

9 וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֔ם וְאַתָּ֖ה אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֣י תִשְׁמֹ֑ר אַתָּ֛ה וְזַרְעֲךָ֥ אַֽחֲרֶ֖יךָ לְדֹרֹתָֽם׃ 10 זֹ֣את בְּרִיתִ֞י אֲשֶׁ֣רתִּשְׁמְר֗וּ בֵּינִי֙ וּבֵ֣ינֵיכֶ֔ם וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעֲךָ֖ אַחֲרֶ֑יךָ הִמּ֥וֹל לָכֶ֖ם כָּל־זָכָֽר׃ 11 וּנְמַלְתֶּ֕ם אֵ֖ת בְּשַׂ֣ר עָרְלַתְכֶ֑ם וְהָיָה֙ לְא֣וֹתבְּרִ֔ית בֵּינִ֖י וּבֵינֵיכֶֽם׃ 12 וּבֶן־שְׁמֹנַ֣ת יָמִ֗ים יִמּ֥וֹל לָכֶ֛ם כָּל־זָכָ֖ר לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶ֑ם יְלִ֣יד בָּ֔יִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּ֙סֶף֙ מִכֹּ֣ל בֶּן־נֵכָ֔ראֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹ֥א מִֽזַּרְעֲךָ֖ הֽוּא׃ 13 הִמּ֧וֹל ׀ יִמּ֛וֹל יְלִ֥יד בֵּֽיתְךָ֖ וּמִקְנַ֣ת כַּסְפֶּ֑ךָ וְהָיְתָ֧ה בְרִיתִ֛י בִּבְשַׂרְכֶ֖ם לִבְרִ֥ית עוֹלָֽם׃ 14 וְעָרֵ֣ל ׀ זָכָ֗ר אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־יִמּוֹל֙ אֶת־בְּשַׂ֣ר עָרְלָת֔וֹ וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵעַמֶּ֑יהָ אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֖י הֵפַֽר׃ ס

 

בְּרִית: MHb. (pl. בְּרִיתוֹת); Akk. (Can. ?) bı̄rtu fetter (AHw. 129), be-ri-tu Qatna, BASOR 121:21f; Eg. bi-ra-ta (Albright Vocalization 40); etym. unc.; meal (I ברה) Meyer Isr. 5881; Koehler JSS 1:4ff; tie, bond (Akk.) Albright BASOR 121:22; < (Akk.!) birı̄t between, Noth Ges. St. 147f; cut Arb. barāy Humbert ThZ 6:60. Literature: Kraetzschmar Bundesvorstellung; Pedersen Eid 30ff; Koehler Theol. §20–21; Eichrodt Theol. 1:9ff; Quell TWNT 2:107ff; Begrich ZAW 60:1ff; Noth ZAW 60:142ff; Mendenhall Law and Covenant (cf. BA 17:26ff, 50ff); Baltzer Bundesformular; Puis VT 16:396ff; Buss VT 16:502f. Distribution: about 290 x, Sept. διαθήκη 275 x, cj. 1K 89 and 2C 510 (:: Rudolph); not attested in Jl, Jon, Mi, Nah, Hab, Zeph, Hg, Megillot; frequent in Gn 27 x, Ex 13 x, Lv 10 x, Dt 27 x, Jos 22 x, 1K 15 x and cj. 89, 2K  12  x, Is 426-618 8 x (Is 1–39 only 245 2815.18 338), Jr 23 x, (3131-3418 14 x), Ezk 18 x, Ps 21 x, 1C 12 x, 2C 17 x: cs. id., ‏תֵךְ‎/‏תֶֽךָ‎/‏בְּרִיתִי: —agreement, covenant.

                   A. between persons —1. בְּ׳ → כָּרַת come to an agreement (cf. Akk. berı̄tu with nakāsu to cut, BASOR 121:21f; cutting of sacrificial animals,  ὅρκια τέμνειν, גזר עדיא, Sef. 1 A 7, Geseneius and most others :: Pedersen Eid 46f), Gn 2127.32 3144 1S 2318 (לִפְנֵי י׳) 1K 526; כָּרַת בְּ׳ אֶת־ he concludes an agreement with 2S 313.21 Jr 348; = כָּרַת בְּ׳ עִם Gn 2628 Hos 122 Jb 4028 2C 233; = כָּרַת בְּרִיתוֹ אֶת 2S 312; abs. כָּרַת בְּ׳ to conclude an agreement Hos 104 Ps 836 (עַל against) with לִפְנֵי י׳ Jr 3415.18 2C 3431, לֵאלֹהֵינוּ in the presence of our God Ezr 103; —2. כָּרַת בְּ׳ לְ to grant an agreement to someone Ex 2332 3412.15 Dt 72 Jos 96f.11.15f Ju 22 1S 111 1K 2034 2K 114 1C 113, with לִפְנֵי י׳ 2S 53; —3. ‏בּוֹא בַבְּ׳ to enter into an agreement (1QS ii:10 and oft.) Jr 3410; עָבַר בְּ׳ to enter into the covenant Dt 2911 (1QS i:16 and oft., → III 4); —4. עִמּוֹ בַבְּ׳ … ‏לָקַח אֶת־‎ to accept someone into a formal arrangement 2C 231, cj. with ‏הֶעֱמִיד to enforce an agreement 2C 3432 (rd. ‏בַּבְּ׳‎ for ‏וּבִנְיָמִין‎); —5. ‏וּבֵין‎ … ‏בְּרִית בֵּין arrangement between one and another 1K 1519 2C 163; —6. בַּעֲלֵי בְרִית Gn 1413 and ‏אַנְשֵׁי בְ׳ Ob 7 partners to an agreement, confederates; —7. בְּרִית אַחִים brotherly obligation Am 19; —8. → C a 1–5; בְּ׳ with ‏שָׁמַר‎ to keep Ezk 1714; with ‏זָכַר to keep in mind Am 19; with הֵפֵר to break 1K 1519 Ezk 1715f.18f; —9. bond of matrimony Mal 214 (אֵשֶׁת בְּרִיתֶֽךָ) Ezk 168 (Dam. xvi:12) cf. Pr 217.

                   [vol. 1, p. 158]

                   B. contract, covenant with: —1. בְּ׳ God with animals Hos 220 (‏עִם), Ezk 3425 (לְ), Gressmann Eschatologie 194, 201; Wolff VT 6:317ff; —2. with the stones of the fields Jb 523 (→ אֶבֶן 5); with death (|| ‏שְׁאוֹל‎, → מָוֶת, through a sacrifice to a god of death, Duhm, or simply metaph. from diplomatic contracts ?) Is 2815.18.

                   C. a covenant between God and mankind (cf. material from Mari; Noth, Ges. St. 142ff.

                   —a. a covenant which is made: —1. God כָּרַת בְּ׳ אֶת־ made a covenant with Gn 1518 Ex 3427 (עַל־פִּי on the basis of) Dt 53 2869(Moses at God’s command).69 2913 (|| אָלָה) 3116 2K 1715.35.38 Jr 1110 3131–32 3413 Zech 1110 Ps 1058 1C 1615; with עִם with Ex 248 Dt 42352 99 2924 1K 821. cj. 9 Neh 98 2C 611. cj. 510; abs. Ex 3410; —2. כָּרַת בְּ׳ לְ God made a covenant for the benefit of (→ Wolff loc.cit.) Is 553618 Jr 3240 Ezk 3425 3726 Ps 894 2C 217; Hos 220 (→ B1); —3. God הֵקִים בְּרִיתוֹ אֶת established his covenant with Gn 618 99.11 1719.21 Ex 64Lv 269 Ezk 1662; with וּבֵין … בֵּין between … and Gn 917 177; with לְ for the benefit of Ezk 1660; —4. God נָתַן בְּרִיתוֹ Gn 172 Nu 2512; הִגִּיד בְּ׳ Dt 413; נִשְׁבַּע בְּרִית לְ Dt 431 818; בָּא בִבְרִית אֶת־ enters into a covenant with Ezk 168 (→ A3); the Jews enter into a covenant with God 2C 1512; God הֶעֱמִיד בְּ׳ לְ Ps 10510, צִוָּה בְרִיתוֹ Dt 413 Ps 1119; —5. God makes an everlasting promise שָׂם בְּ׳ עוֹלָם 2S 235, mindful of his covenant Ps 1058; —6. as a representative of the community, a human individual makes a covenant with God  כָּרַת בְּ׳ Jos 2425 2K 1117 2C 2316 2K 233 (לִפְנֵי י׳), ‏כָּרַת בְּ׳ לַיהוה‎ with Y. ! 2C 2910; —7. to enter into a covenant with God בּוֹא בַבְּ׳ (→ A3) 2C 1512; עָבַר בַּבְּ׳ Dt 2911; ‏עָמַד בַּבְּ׳ 2K 233; הָֽיְתָה בְ׳ אֶת־ the covenant is with Ezk 3726 Mal 24f; Gn 1713; זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֶת־ Is 5921.

                   —b. phrases connected with ‏בְּ׳: —1. אוֹת הַבְּ׳ Gn 912.17 אוֹת בְּ׳ 913 1711; —2. דִּבְרֵי הַבְּ׳ Ex 3428 Dt 2869 298 2K 233 Jr 112f.6.83418 2C 3431; —3. סֵפֶר הַבְּ׳ Ex 247 2K 232.21 2C 3430; לוּחֹת הַבְּ׳ Dt 99.11.15 (1K 89, cj. 2C 510); —4. אֲרוֹן בְּ׳ י׳ Nu 1033 1444 Dt 108 319.25f Jos 33.17 ! 47.18 68 833 1S 43–5 1K 610 81.6 Jr 316 1C 1525f.28f 171 2219 282.18 2C 52.7, אֲרוֹן בְּ׳ הָאֱלֹהִים Ju 2027 1S 44 2S 1524 1C 166; אֲרוֹן בְּ׳ אֲדוֹנָי 1K 315; אֲרוֹן הַבְּ׳ Jos 36.8.11! 14! 49 66; —5. דַּם הַבְּ׳ Ex 248; ‏דַּם בְּרִיתֵךְ (Zion) Zech 911; —6. ‏נָקַם בְּ׳ Lv 2625; —7. בְּ׳ עוֹלָם Gn 916 177.13.19 Ex 3116 Lv 248 2S 235 Is 245 553 618 Jr 3240 505 Ezk 1660 3726 Ps 10510 1C 1617; בְּ׳ לְעוֹלָם Ps 1058; —8. ‏בְּ׳ אֱלֹהִים 2C 3432; ‏בְּ׳ אֱלֹהֶיךָ Lv 213; בְּ׳ יהוה Dt 423 108 2911.24 Jos 2316 1S 208 1K 821 2C 611 !; —9. בְּ׳ רִאשֹׁנִים Lv 2645; ‏בְּ׳ אֲבוֹתֶיךָ Dt 431; ‏בְּ׳ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ Mal 210; בְּ׳ קֹדֶשׁ Da 1128.30; בְּ׳ הַלֵּוִי Mal 28; ‏בְּ׳ הַכְּהֻנָּה וְהַלְּוִיִּם Neh 1329; —10. מַלְאַךְ הַבְּ׳ Mal 31 guardian angel of the community (Kraetzschmar loc. cit. 237ff, → Comm. :: Staerk ZAW 55:12); נְגִיד בְּ׳ head of the covenant, the high-priest Da 1122; בְּנֵי אֶרֶץ הַבְּרִית Ezk 305 the people belonging to the land of the covenant, Jewish soldiers in the Egyptian army → Zimmerli 732; —11. בְּרִיתוֹ with Abraham, Isaac, Jacob Ex 224 2K 1323 בְּרִיתִי with Jacob (add אֶת־ ?) with Isaac and with Abraham Lv 2642 (→ GK §128d; Cross Orthography 4611); the same בְּרִיתִי הַיּוֹם and ‏בְּרִיתִי הַלַּיְלָה‎ Jr 3320; בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם peace treaty (GK §131r) Nu 2512; → בְּ׳ שָׁלוֹם Ezk 3425 3726; בְּ׳ שְׁלוֹמִי Is 5410; → Noth Ges. St. 148f; —12. בְּ׳ מֶלַח covenant of salt (Pedersen Eid 48f; Dickson Arab 121f) Nu 1819 2C 135; מֶלַח בְּ׳ Lv 213; —13. בַּעַל בְּ׳ Ju 833 94 and אֵל בְּ׳ 946 Can. (Meyer Isr. 550f, 557f = Hellenistic  Ζεὺς ξένιος, ὅρκιος, Jupiter iurarius, Eissfeldt ZAW 57:288); —14. בְּ׳ כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם entitlement to an everlasting priesthood Nu 2513.     

                   [vol. 1, p. 159]

                   —c. the maintenance of the covenant: —1. God זָכַר בְּרִיתוֹ Gn 915f Ex 224 65 Lv 2642.45 Ezk 1660 Ps 1058 10645 1115; —2. שָׁמַר בְּ׳: God Dt 79.12 1K 823 Da 94 Neh 15 932 2C 614; man Gn 179f Ex 195 1K (823) 1111 Ezk 1714 Ps 7810 10318 13212; שָׁמַר דִּבְרֵי הַבְּ׳ Dt 298; —3. ‏עָשָׂה כִבְ׳ 2C 3432; —4. הֶחֱזִיק בִּבְ׳ Is 564.6; —5. הֵקִים to maintain Dt 818; with דִּבְרֵי הַבְּ׳ 2K 233 Jr 3418; נֶאֱמָן בִּבְ׳ faithful to Ps 7837; נָצַר בְּ׳ Dt 339 Ps 2510.

                   —d. neglecting, contravening the covenant: —1. הֵפֵר 1K 1519 Is 245 338 Jr 3320 Ezk 1715f.18f; Gn 1714 Lv 2615.44 Dt 3116.20 Jr 1110 3132 Ezk 1659 447, pass. Jr 3321; subj. God Ju 21 Jr 1421 Zech 1110; —2. שָׁכַח Dt 423 Pr 217 ! Dt 431 (God); —3. עָזַב Dt 2924 1K 1910.14Jr 229 Da 1130; —4. עָבַר Dt 172 Jos 711.15 2316 Ju 220 2K 1812 Jr 3418 Hos 67 81; —5. מָאַס בְּ׳ 2K 1715; ‏שִׁחֵת בְּ׳ Mal 28; חִלֵּל בְּ׳ Mal 210 Ps 55218935; שִׁקֵּר בְּ׳ Ps 4418; God ‏נֵאַר בְּ׳ Ps 8940; ‏הִרְשִׁיעַ בְּ׳ Da 1132.

                   —e. misc.: ‏מִבְּרִיתֵךְ on account of the covenant with you Ezk 1661; ‏כָּרַת בְּ׳ עַל־זֶבַח to make a covenant at a community sacrifice (cf. בְּ׳ מֶלַח and Jr 3418) Ps 505; נָשָׂא בְ׳ עַל־פֶּה to observe the covenant with the lips (only) Ps 5016; בְ׳ עַם Is 426 498; 1S 183 blood brotherhood (cf. Herodotus iii 8; Pedersen Eid 21f; Smith Rel. Sem. 270f, 479); Da 927 → גבר hif.; expression of substitute (Begrich ZAW 60:10) for ‏תּוֹרָה‎ Is 245, for חֹק Ps 10510, 2K 1715, for מִצְוָה Dt 413 Jos 711; —Jos 311 dubious; Jr 3325 rd. בָּרָאתִי; Ezk 2037 dl. ‏הַבְּ׳; Ps 7420 rd. לַבְּרִיֹּת.

 

II דּוֹר‎ also ‏דֹּר‎, (160 x): I דור (:: Albright BASOR 163:50f: Arb. dahr a long time); MHb.; Ug. dr (|| pḫr, mpḫrt) collection (Pope 48, 60; Neuberg JNES 9:215ff; UTGl. 697; Aistleitner 786 generation); Ph. דר: family DISO 60; Arm. דָּר generation → BArm., Sam. BenH. 2:445, Mnd. (MdD 100b); Arb. daur period, OSArb. occasion; Eth. dār and dōr (loan < Heb. ?, Leslau 16); Akk. dāru eternity from darū to last, continue, (Ug. dūru, dāru, darı̄tu PRU 3:218), dāru generation WSem. lw. AHw. 164b: ‏דּוֹרִי‎, ‏ת‎(‏וֹ‎)‏רֹ‎(‏וֹ‎)‏דּ‎, ‏דֹּרֹת‎, ‏דּוֹרִים Is 518 Ps 725 10225 †, דֹּרֹתָיו, ‏דֹּרֹתָם‎ Ex 4015, 4Q ‏דורותם as in Sir 441 (Textus 2:99): ‏תֵינוּ‎(‏וֹ‎)‏דּוֹר —1. sing. cycle, lifetime,  [vol. 1, p. 218]  descent, generation, (all the people who have grown up in the period from the birth of a man until the birth of his first son; Noth Überl. St. 21; a period with particular events and people, Ped. Isr. 1–2:490): הַדּוֹר הַזֶּה Gn 71 ‏דּ׳ רְבִעִי 1516, ‏לְאֶלֶף דּ׳ as long as a thousand generations Dt 79, ‏הַדּ׳ הָאַחֲרוֹן 2921, ‏הָרִאשׁוֹן Jb 88; with ‏עִקֵּשׁ Dt 325, with ‏צַדִּיק Ps 145; with ‏אֲבֹתָיו 4920, with ‏בָּנֶיךָ 7315, with ‏עֶבְרָתוֹ Jr 729 etc.; ‏דֹּר דֹּר Ex 315 and דֹּר וָדֹר Dt 327 (29 x; Ug. drdr, ana dūrim, ana dāri dūri and simil., for ever, (PRU 3:218) Akk. dūr dāri, simil. in Mnd.) and דּוֹר לְד׳ Ps 1454 generation after generation, ‏דּוֹר דּוֹרִים Ps 10225, cj. ‏לְכָל־דּ׳ יָבוֹא Ps 7118; group דּ׳ דֹּרְשָׁיו Ps 246; Is 538 ? fate (Arb. dāʾirat), alt. his contemporaries, cj. רִיבוֹ; —2. pl. generations (in Greek originally counted as forty years, from the time of Herodotus as thirty-three and a third years, Meyer Gesch. 3/2:207): אַרְבָּעָה דֹּרֹת Jb 4216, ‏דֹּרֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂ׳ Ju 32, ‏דֹּרוֹתֵינוּ אַחֲרֵינוּ future generations descended from us Jos 2227f; ‏דּ׳ עוֹלָמִים generations in times past Is 519; ‏תֵיכָם‎/‏תָם‎/‏לְדֹרֹתָיו according to his (their, your) generations = generation after generation descended from him (them, you) Lv 2530 Gn 177.12; בְּדֹּרֹתָיו among his contemporaries Gn 69, Sir 441 (alt.: in his turn); —Ju 32 dl. (dittogr., Seeligmann VT 11:2142); Jr 221 ?, prp. וְלֹא יְרֵאתֶם Sept., Latina; Is 414 rd. הַקֹּרוֹת (→ v.22).

 

I ‏מול‎: MHeb. ‏מול‎ and ‏מהל‎, JArm.b ‏מהל; by-form → ‏מלל; → ‏מוּל; vSoden WZUH 17:182.

                   qal: pf. ‏מָל‎, ‏מָ֫לוּ‎, ‏תֶּם‎/‏וּמַלְתָּ‎; impf. ‏וַיָּ֫מָל‎; pt. pass. ‏מוּל‎, ‏מֻלִים: to circumcise (Reicke-R. Hw. 223; Sierksma OTSt. 9:136ff): עָרְלָה בְּשַׂר Gn 1723, someone 214 Ex 1244 Jos 53.5.7; abs. Jos 54; עָרְלַת לֵבָב  [vol. 2, p. 556]  Dt 1016, לֵבָב 306 (‏יהוה); pt. pass. circumcised Jos 55, with בְּעָרְלָה Jr 924. †

                   nif. (MHeb., Dam. 16:6; Bauer-L. Heb. 399i; Bergsträsser 2:151qb): pf. ‏נִמּוֹל‎, ‏נִמֹּלוּ‎, ‏וּנְמַלְתֶּם Gn 1711 (Bauer-L. Heb. 431t :: Bergsträsser 2:147i); impf. ‏יִמּוֹל‎, ‏וַיִּמֹּלוּ‎; impv. ‏הִמֹּלוּ‎; inf. ‏ל‎(‏וֹ‎)‏הִמֹּ‎, ‏הִמֹּלוֹ‎; pt. ‏נִמֹּלִים: to circumcise oneself, be circumcised Gn 1710–14 (11 times, אֶת־בְּשַׂר עָרְלַתְכֶם, acc. of part affected Gesenius-K. 121dd). 24–27 3415.17 .22.24 Ex 1248 Lv 123 Jos 58, with לַי׳ Jr 44. †

          Der. ‏מוּל (?), מוּלָה.

הִמּ֥וֹל  (מול) מול־1 Verb nifal infinitiveAbsolute

נְמַלְתֶּ֕ם  (מול) מול־1 Verb nifal perfect second masculine plural consecutive 

יִמּ֥וֹל  (מול) מול־1 Verb nifal imperfect third masculine singular

 

בָּשָׂר (266 x); Jerome bosor: skin Arb. bašarat, denom. bašara to peel off skin; flesh Ug. bšr, Ph. EgArm. DISO 45, MHb., JArm. שְׂרָא/בִּסְ, CPArm. Syr. Mnd. (MdD 67b) besrā, Eth. (→ Leslau 13) bsr, OSArb. bšr: ‏בְּשַׂר‎, ‏בְּשָׂרִי‎, ‏רֶֽךָ‎/‏בְּשָֽׂרְךָ‎, ‏בְּשַׁרְכֶם‎, ‏בְּשָׂרִים Pr 1430 †: —1. skin (→ עוֹר) Ps 1026 119120 Jb 415; —2. flesh (→ שְׁאֵר) of living human beings Gn 221 2K 514, of dead ones 1S 1744, of animals Dt 148, of cows Gn 412, pigs Is 654 6617, quails Nu 1133; —3. meat, food 1S 213.15 Pr 2320, בָּ׳ חַי raw meat 1S 215, forbidden meat Ex 2128; אָכַל בָּ׳ Dt 1215 ‏לֶחֶם וּבָ׳ 1K 176, בָּ׳ וָיַיִן Da 103; —4. sacrificial meat בְּ׳ קֹדֶשׁ Jr 1115 Hg 212, בְּ׳ מִזְבֵּחַ Lv 720, בְּ׳ פִּגּוּל unclean meat Ezk 414; —5. flesh as part of the body: a) → עֶצֶם and ‏בָּ׳‎ Gn 223; ‏עוֹר וּבָ׳ Jb 1011 (:: 1), ‏בשר ודם Sir 1418; b) euphemistic for the pubic region, בְּ׳ עָרְלָה Gn 1711, בְּ׳ עֶרְוָה Ex 2842, בָּ׳ penis (Syr.) Lv 152f.7 Ezk 1626 2320, → מְבוּשִׁים; of a woman Lv 1519; series: ‏גִּדִים‎, ‏בָּ׳‎, ‏עוֹר‎, ‏רוּחַ Ezk 376.8, ‏עוֹר‎, ‏בָּ׳‎, ‏עֲצָמוֹת‎, ‏גִּידִים‎ Jb 1011; מִשְׁמַן בְּשָׂרוֹ Is 174; —6. body (Pedersen Isr. 1–2:176ff) Ezk 1119 3626 Ps 632 Pr 511 Jb 415 Qoh 1212 חַיֵּי בְשָׂרִים Pr 1430; rotting flesh Zech 1412; נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּ׳ Lv 1711; youths בְּרִיאֵי בָ׳ fat in flesh Da 115; —7. relatives (→ שְׁאֵר; Reiser ThZ 16:1ff); ‏בָּ׳ מִבְּשָׂרִי‎ Gn 223; ‏בָּ׳ אֶחָד 224; ‏אָחִינוּ בְשָׂרֵנוּ (rd. ‏וּבְ׳‎ ?) our blood brother 3727; ‏שְׁאֵר בְּשָׂרוֹ his close relative Lv 186; בְּשָֽׂרְךָ your relatives Is 587; —8. a) living flesh: לֵב בָּ׳ :: לֵב אֶבֶן Ezk 1119 3626; b) what is frail, transient (→ σάρξ in the NT) מִנֶּפֶשׁ וְעַד בָּ׳ Is 1018; ‏בָּ׳ :: ‏רוּחַ‎ 313 ‏עַרְלֵי בָ׳ Ezk 447; בָּ׳ mere flesh Ps 565 7839; עֵינֵי בָ׳ Jb 104; ‏זְרוֹעַ בָּ׳ :: ‏יהוה‎ 2C 328; —9. כָּל־בָּשָׂר (Hulst OTS 12:28ff): a) all flesh, man and beast Gn 612.17 and oft.; b) mankind Nu 1622 2716 Is 405; c) animals Gn 619 721 817; d) any human being Dt 523 Sir 3711; e) every human being כָּל־הַבָּ׳ is grass Is 406; אֱלֹהֵי כָל־בָּ׳ Jr 3227; —Jb 1926 מִבְּשָׂרִי → Comm., ‏בסר pi., שׂהד hif.

 

עָרְלָה: > ערל, SamP. ārillå: Bauer-L. Heb. 461j; MHeb., DSS (Kuhn Konkordanz 161), JArm. עֻרְלְתָא, Sam. (Ben-H. Lit. Or. 2:548), Syr. urlā and urlūṯ; Arb. ġurlat and ruġlat; Akk. urullu usu. pl. fem. (AHw. 1436b) foreskin; Eg. qrnt (Erman-G. 5:60; Widengren Fschr. Pedersen 383; Albright Voc. 45: qu-ur-na-ta); Sept. ἀκροβυστία, Vulg. praeputium: ‏עָרְלַת‎, ‏עָרְלָתוֹ‎, ‏עָרְלָתָם‎, pl. ‏עֲרָלוֹת‎ (Bauer-L. Heb. 604g), ‏עָרְלוֹת, עָרְלוֹתֵיהֶם: foreskin of a man’s penis (Reicke-R. Hw. 223): a) Gn 3414 Ex 425 Jr 924; meaning: the whole penis (Ilias 22, 74f) 1S 1825.27 2S 314; cutting off all the genitals (see Liebrecht Zur Volkskunde (1879):94ff; Widengren Fschr. Pedersen 377ff); בְּשַׁר עָרְלָה Gn 1711.14.23–25 Lv 123; b) metaph. (→ עָרֵל 2): עָרְלַת לֵבָב Dt 1016 Jr 44 (1QpHab 11:13 ‏עורלת לבו‎); c) the ‏עָ׳‎ of a fruit tree, meaning: its fruit (‏פִּרְיוֹ‎) Lv 1923; d) n.loc. גִּבְעַת הָעֲרָלוֹת Jos 53 (Gradwohl VT 26 (1976):235–40), → גִּבְעָה B 7. †

 

I אוֹת (ca. 80 x): Keller Oth; Zimmerli ThZ 5:374ff; Johnson Prophet 52ff; Quell Fschr. Rudolph 290ff; MHb., Arm. (→ BArm.) אָתָא, Arb. ʾāyat (Guillaume 18), Akk. ittu (?); etym. unc., Keller 146ff; אוה Palache 3f: אֹת Ex 48 819 1213, pl. ‏ת‎(‏וֹ‎)‏אֹתֹ‎, ‏תָיו‎(‏וֹ‎)‏אֹתֹ; masc. Ex 819 Is 3730 and oft.; fem. Gn 912.17 1S 107 Jr 4429 Ezk 43: sign (frequently || → מוֹפֵת; fire sign Lach. 4, 11: a) distinguishing mark Gn 415 Ex 819 1213 Jos 212 (א׳ אֱמֶת sure sign) Jb 2129; b) standard ? Nu 22 (|| דֶּגֶל) Ps 744.9 (→ g); 1QpHab 6:3, Rowley EphTheoLov. 28 (1952) 273; Maier 2:145 :: Elliger Hab. 187f; c) sign (as a reminder of a duty) Gn 912 1711 Ex 3113.17 Dt 1118 Is 1920 Ezk 2012.20, cj. Nu 1539 (rd. לְאוֹת for צִיצִת); d) commemorative token Ex 139.16 Nu 1725 Dt 68 2846 Jos 46 Is 5513 Ezk 148; e) sign confirming the truth of an earlier statement Ex 312 Ju 617 1S 234 107.9 2K 1929 Is 711.14; f) miraculous sign, which proves someone’s ἐξουσία Ex 48.8.9.17 .28.30 Dt 132 f; God’s miraculous signs Ex 73 101f Nu 1411.22 Dt 434 622 719 113 Jos 2417 Jr 3220f Ps 659 7843 10527 1359 Neh 910; g) omen, foretelling the future Gn 114 1S 14102K 208f Is 818 203 3730 387.22 6619 Jr 4429 Ezk 43 Ps 749 (Keller 45ff, → b); אֹתֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם Jr 102; h) warning sign, deterrent Nu 173; i) misc.: to offer a sign נָתַן Gn 912, ‏הֵקִים Gn 917, ‏שִׂים Is 6619, ‏בּוֹא to come true 1S 107; ‏א׳ לְטוֹבַה Ps 8617; א׳ בְּרִית Gn 913.17; —Is 4425 rd. ‏בָּרִים‎ (‏אֹתוֹת‎) for ‏בַּדִּים‎, → Vulg. בַּר; ?? Ezk 1616 (→ Zimmerli 336).

          II —אוֹת and —‏אֹת‎ w. sffx. → I אֵת.

 

‏שְׁמֹנֶה‎, ‏שְׁמוֹנֶה‎: II *‏שׁמן‎ or *‏שׁמני, see Gesenius-Buhl Handw., and KBL; for Semitic see Brockelmann Vergl. Gramm. 1: 486; Bergsträsser Einführung 191; basic form according to AHw. 1017b ṯamānı̄; SamP. šamā̊na (fem. and masc.); MHeb. שְׁמֹנֶה; Ug. ṯmn/ṯmnt (Gordon Textbook §19:2698; Aistleitner Wb. 2886; Gibson Myths2 160a); Akk. samāne, Assyrian šamāne, fem. šamānat, saman(ū)tu (AHw. 1017b; cf. von Soden Gramm. §69b, §139f; CAD S, 110b); Ph., Punic šmn, Neo-Punic šmnʾ (Friedrich Phön. Gr.2 §242; Tomback Lexicon 323); Arm. תְּמָנָא, so KBL; see Bergsträsser. Einführung 191 tmānē; for the forms in the Arm. dialects see Jean-Hoftijzer Dictionnaire 309; Hoftijzer-Jongeling Dictionary 1163f s.v. šmn4; OSArb. ṯmny(t), ṯmn(t) (Höfner Grammatik §112); Eth. samānı̄ (Dillman Lex. 334b); Tigr. samān (Littmann-H. Wb. 173b); Arb. ṯamānin; Egyptian ḫmn (Erman-Grapow Wb. 3: 282).

          —fem. ‏שְׁמֹנָה‎, ‏שְׁמוֹנָה‎, cstr. ‏שְׁמֹנַת‎ (altogether 109 times), pl. ‏שְׁמֹנִים‎, ‏שְׁמוֹנִים (SamP. šā̊mā̊nəm) (38 times): eight, pl. eighty: שְׁמֹנֶה אַמּוֹת Ezk 409, ‏שְׁמֹנָה בָנִים 1S 1712, ‏שְׁמֹנִים אִישׁ 2K 1024, ‏נִים שָׁנָה‎(‏וֹ‎)‏שְׁמֹ‎ Gn 524f, שְׁמֹנַת יָמִים Gn 1712, שְׁמֹנָה אֵלֶּה Gn 2223, on which see Westermann BK 2/2, 448 (with bibliography), ‏שְׁמֹנָה פָּרִים Nu 2929; eighteen שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר (SamP. šā̊mā̊na ā̊šår) Gn 1414 and שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה Ju 314 and ‏שְׁמֹנַת עָשָׂר Ju 2025; ‏שָׁנָה לְ בִּשְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְְׂרֵה 2K 223 and ‏בִּשְׁנַת שְׁ׳ עֶ׳ לְ Jr 5229 in the eighteenth year of; שְׁמֹנִים אִישׁ eighty men  [vol. 4, p. 1570]  2K 1024; שֶׁבַע וּשְׁמֹנִים שָׁנָה eighty-seven (in the expression one hundred and eighty seven years, the age at which Methuselah became the father of Lamech) Gn 525; ‏שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה eight hundred (in the expression eight hundred and ninety-five years, the age of Mahalalel when he died) Gn 517; שְׁמֹנַת־אֲלָפִים eight thousand (in the expression one hundred and eight thousand and one hundred) Nu 224.

 

יָלִיד, SamP.M106 often fem. ‏יֶלֶד: ‏ילד‎; JArm.t ‏יְלִידָא; fem. Arb. walı̄dat: ‏יְלִיד, יְלִידֵי: Willesen Stud. Theol. 12 (1958):192ff: —1. son (→ 2); of עֲנָק Nu 1322.28 Jos 1514, of רָפָה 2S 2116.18 and רָפָא 1C 204; —2. יְלִיד בַּיִת slave born in the house(hold) (de Vaux Inst. 1:128, “someone’s bondsman”; Galling VT Supp. 15:157; Sauer ZDMG 116:237; Akk. (w)ilid bı̄tim (Driver-M. Babylonian Laws 1:222), Arb. muwallad (Enz. Isl. 3:859), > mulatto (Littmann Morg. Wörter 68), Greek οἰκέτης: Gn 1414 1712f.23.27 (:: מִקְנַת כֶּסֶף), Lv 2211 (:: קִנְיַן כֶּסֶף) Jr 214. †

 

מִקְנָה: קנה, Bauer-L. Heb. 492p; MHeb., Arb. qu/inyat acquisitions: מִקְנַת, מִקְנָתוֹ: acquisition (through trading, purchase) buying Sir 425(parallel with ‏מחיר‎; margin ‏חשבון‎), ‏שְׂדֵה מִ׳‎ purchased field (:: ‏שְׂדֵה אְַחֻוָּה‎) Lv 2722; ‏כֶּסֶף מִקְנַת slave bought with money (:: בַּיִת יְלִיד) Gn 1712f.23.27 Ex 1244; כֶּסֶף מִ׳ purchase price Lv 2551, > ‏מִקְנָה 2516 (‏הִרְבָּה‎ to increase, ‏הִמְעִיט‎ to decrease); ‏סֵפֶר מִ׳ sale document Jr 3211f.14.16; קוּמּ לְמִקְנָה לְ to pass to someone by sale (with the sale formula) Gn 2317f. †

 

I כֶּסֶף (ca. 400 times), SamP.M118 kāsef: trad. II כסף “the white metal”, (Forbes JbEOL 2:493; Eilers WdO 2:322f, 465ff.), ? I “what is broken” (sc. money); Arb. kisf piece; MHeb., JArm., Sam. (Ben-H. 2:488b), Mnd. (Drower-M. Dictionary 199b) כַּסְפָּא, Syr. kespā, Akk. kaspu silver; at first an adjective, which afterwards supersedes the accompanying noun, as Akk. ṣarpu (CAD —:113b), Arb. fiḍḍat: Forbes JbEOL 2:489ff.: ‏כָּֽסֶף‎, ‏כַּסְפִּי‎, ‏כַּסְפָּם‎, ‏כַּסְפֵּנוּ‎, ‏כַּסְפֵּיהֶם‎ (Bauer-L. Heb. 581, 210f.): the value in relation to ‏זהב varies, וז׳ כּ׳ generally older, Hartmann STU 28:29ff.; RLA 3:512f.: —1. silver as a metal: Zech 139 Mal 33 Pr 254 Jb 281; —2. as material: Ezk 2712, כְּלֵי כֶ׳ silver adornment Gn 2453, כַסְפּוֹ אֱלִילֵי silver idols Is 220, less valuable than gold at king Solomon’s court 1K 1021; —3. in general, money: כַּסְפֵּנוּ our money  [vol. 2, p. 491]  Gn 3115, אֵין לוֹ כֶ׳ he has no money Is 551a andבְּלֹא כֶ׳ without money 551b (Barr Philology 153); בַּכֶּ׳ for money Dt 228 Am 26; בְּכֶ׳ מָלֵא for the full weight, for the full price (Akk. ana kasap gamirti, AHw. 278b) Gn 239 1C 2122.24; with שָׁקַל Jr 329; four hundred ‏כֶּסֶף שֶׁקֶל four hundred (weights, pieces) shekels of silver Gn 2315, > ‏כֶּסֶף‎ [‏שֶׁקֶל‎] ‏אֶלֶף‎ one thousand pieces of silver 2016; with מָנָה 2K 1211; —4. misc.: pl. uncoined pieces of silver Gn 4225.35; כֶּ׳ כִּפֻּרִים atonement money Ex 3016; ‏סִיגִים → ‏סַפְסַפִּים; → ‏זקק‎, ‏צרך‎, *‏נָטִיל.

 

נֵכָר: I נכר, Bauer-L. Heb. 467t (qital); SamP. nēkår; Ug. nkr (Gordon Textbook §19:1649; Aistleitner 1786) strange; Akk. nakru, nakiru hostile, enemy (AHw. 723); 4QpNahum: גוי נכר (IEJ 21 (1971):6): נֵ֫כַר־ Dt 3116 (Bauer-L. Heb. 239p, 554z): foreigner, foreign country (THAT 2:66ff): —1. a) אַדְמַת נֵ׳ foreign soil Ps 1374; b) אֵל נֵ׳ foreign god Dt 3212 Mal 211 Ps 8110, pl. אֱלֹהֵי נֵ׳ Gn 352.4 Dt 3116 Jos 2420.23 Ju 1016 1S 73 Jr 519, אֱלוֹהַּ נֵ׳ Da 1139 2C 3315 (אֱלֹהֵי הַנֵּ׳), ‏הַבְלֵי נֵכָר‎ Jr 819; c) ‏מִזְבְּחוֹת הַנֵּכָר foreign, strange altars 2C 142; ‏כָּל־נֵכָר all that is foreign Neh 1330; —2. ‏בֶּן־נֵ׳ (→ בֵּן 7, DSS) foreigner Gn 1712.27 Ex 1243 Lv 2225 Is 563 (הַנֵּ׳), Ezk 449, בְּנֵי נֵ׳ 2S 2245f/Ps 1845f Is 566 (הַנֵּ׳), 6010 615 628Ezk 447 Ps 1447.11 Neh 92. †

 

עוֹלָם‎ (440 times), once ‏עֹלָם‎, עֵילוֹם 2C 337 textual error (Rudolph Chr. 314); SamP. ‚låm, Sec. λωλαμ (Brönno 171) Ps 8938; Ug. lm (d lm, d lm … lmt, m lm, plmh, bd lm, bd … wdlm, mlk lm, lm parallel with dr dr) (Gordon Textbook §19:1858; Aistleitner 2036; Fisher Parallels 1: p. 38 no. 27; p. 266 no. 363; p. 287f no. 405; p. 290 no. 411; p. 291 no. 413; p. 294f no. 425); Deir Alla passim (pl. lmn), Ph. n.div. Ουλωμός (Harris Gr. 133; Friedrich2 §78a, 79b; THAT 2:236; WbMyth. 1:309; Gese-H. Religionen 148, 203) and appellative lm; OArm. (Donner-R. Inschriften no. 224:24f; Degen-M. Neue Eph. 2:87 line 7), Mo. EgArm. Nab. Palm. and Hatra (Jean-H. Dictionnaire 213), BArm. עָֽלְמָא, JArm. CPArm. Sam. (Ben-H. 2:498a), Syr. Mnd. (Drower-M. Dictionary 20b); Arb. Eth. ālam, OSArb. (Conti 207a: creation, world); Jenni Olam ZAW 64 (1952):197–248; 65 (1953):1–35; THAT 2:228–43); etym. uncertain, for relevant suggestions see Jenni Olam ZAW 64 (1952):199ff; THAT 2:228; essentially equivalent to Akk. dāru duration, eternity (AHw. 164), → II ‏דּוֹר‎: ‏עוֹלָמוֹ‎, ‏לָמִים‎(‏וֹ‎)‏עֹ‎ (MHeb. ‏־וֹת‎), ‏עוֹלְמֵי‎.

          —1. long time, duration (usually eternal, eternity, but not in a philosophical sense) THAT 2:235f: עֶבֶד ע׳ a slave for life Dt 1517 1S 2712 Jb 4028 (Ug. bd lm), שִׂמְחַת ע׳ Is 3510, ‏זֵכֶר ע׳ Ps 1126, ‏שֵׁם ע׳ Is 565, ‏הֲרַת ע׳ Jr 2017, ‏חֶרְפַּת ע׳ Is 2340; ‏ע׳ occurs thus in many  [vol. 2, p. 799]  phrases: with ‏בְּרִית Gn 916 (16 times), with ‏בְּרִית מֶלַח Nu 1819, with ‏אֲחֻזַּת Gn 178, with חֻקַּת (23 times) Ex 1214.17. cj. Ezk 4614 see Zimmerli 1168, with חָק־ (11 times) Ex 2928 3021, with כְּהֻנַּת Ex 4015 Nu 2513, with חֶסֶד never-failing kindness Is 548.

          —2. future time (THAT 2:232ff): a) עוֹלָם adv. (acc. Gesenius-K. §118q, MSS often לְע׳) Ps 618 667 892.38, cj. 48; b) with prep: לְע׳ Gn 322 (164 times), cj. Ps 875 (BHK :: BHS) and 2C 337; עַד ע׳ (Deir Alla 1:9; Hoftijzer-vdK. Deir Alla 200) Gn 1315 (60 times) and עַד לְע׳ 1C 2325287 (cf. Ug. bd lm, d lm … lmt); לְע׳ parallel with ‏לְדֹר דֹּר‎ Ex 315; ‏עַד ע׳ parallel with ‏לְדֹר וָדֹר‎ Is 3417 (7 times); ‏ע׳ וָעֶד[‏ל‎] Ex 1518 (15 times); עַד־הָע׳ Ps 289 1333; מֵעַתָּה וְעַד־ע׳ Is 96 (8 times); ‏עַד־עוֹלְמֵי עַד for all times Is 4517; ‏לעולמי עד 1QH 18; לָעַד לְע׳ Ps 1118 1486; c) עוֹלָמִים times to come Ps 778 1K 813 = 2C 62 Ps 615 14513 Da 924 :: former times Qoh 110 (THAT 2:241).

          —3. a long time back, dark age of prehistory (Pedersen Isr. 1–2:491; THAT 2:232): a) אֵיבַת ע׳ Ezk 2515, ‏אַהֲבַת ע׳ Jr 313, ‏ת ע׳‎(‏וֹ‎)‏גִּבְעֹ Gn 4926 Dt 3315, עַם ע׳ Ezk 2620, פִּתְחֵי ע׳ Ps 247.9, יְמוֹת ע׳ Dt 327, ‏יְמֵי ע׳ Mal 34, מֵתֵי ע׳ those long dead Lam 36, Ps 1433, אֹרַח ע׳ Jb 2215 (:: Pope Job 166), נְתִבוֹת ע׳ Jr 616, ‏ע׳ שְׁבִילֵי Jr 1815, ‏הֲלִיכוֹת ע׳ Hab 36, גְּבוּל ע׳ Pr 2228 2310 (?); b) עוֹלָם Dt 3315 and ‏עוֹלָמִים Is 519 parallel with ‏קֶדֶם‎, ‏ע׳‎ parallel with ‏דּוֹר וָדוֹר‎ Dt 327; c) מֵעוֹלָם ever since, from of old (THAT 2:231f): Gn 64 (15 times, Mesha 10), Sir 4221 518, cj. 2S 1318 (:: Hertzberg ATD 102:2641) and Is 447; מִן הָע׳ Jr 288 Jl 22, וְעַד הָע׳ מֵהָע׳ Ps 4114, ‏מִן הָע׳ וְעַד הָע׳ Ps 10648, ‏מֵע׳ עַד־ע׳ Ps 902, ‏מֵע׳ וְעַד־ע׳ Ps 10317.

          —4. of God: אֱלֹהֵי ע׳ everlasting God Is 4028 (see Seeligmann 986), אֵל ע׳ Gn 2133 (THAT 2:236f; Cross HTR 55 (1962):236ff; OSin.  ʾl ḏ-lm, Albright  Proto-Sin. 13, 38; F.M. Cross Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic (1973):49f: “El lord of eternity”), מֶלֶךְ ע׳ Jr 1010 (cf. Ug. mlk lm, THAT 2:237), זְדֹעֹת ע׳ Dt 3327 (Cross-Freedman JBL 67 (1948):20985; THAT 2:236), צוּר עוֹלָמִים Is 264; ‏חֵי הָע׳ Da 127 (= Arm. חַי עָֽלְמָא Da 431) the ever-living one (see Baudissin Adonis 486ff).

          —5. misc. בֵּית עוֹלָמוֹ his house of eternity, meaning grave Qoh 125 (also Deir Alla 2:6. Pun. Palm. Syr.; orig. Egyptian, see THAT 2:242; H.P. Müller ZDPV 94 (1978):63); (sense of) ע׳ placed in people’s hearts Qoh 311 (THAT 2:242; Barr Biblical Words for Time (London 1962):117f4: enduring state referring to past and future; Gese Vom Sinai zum Zion (1974):177: lapse of time :: Gray Legacy2 274f), parallel with הַכֹּל (→ ‏כֹּל‎ 1, a, i); ‏עולם‎ meaning “world” occurs first in post-Biblical Heb. (THAT 2:242f; Hertzberg KAT 17/4:100 and 106f), Palm. ‏מרא עלמא‎ the Lord of the World, DJD 1: no. 20:ii: line 5, p. 87 (THAT 2:242f; Galling ZThK 58 (1961):2ff).

          —Emendations: 1S 278 for ‏מֵעוֹלָם‎ prp. ‏מִטֵּילָם‎ :: Stoebe KAT 8/1:474; Seebass VT 15 (1965):389ff: ‏עֵילָם‎, the same ‏עֵ׳ as in Gn 141 (!), Sept. Γελαμ[ψουρ]); Is 5711 rd. וּמַעְלִים; Is 644 for ‏בָּהֶם עוֹלָם וְנִוָּשֵֽׁעַ‎ prp. ‏בְּהֵעָלֶמְךָ וַנִּפְשָׁע‎, alt. ‏וַנִּרְשָׁע (BHS :: KBL; Westermann ATD 19:3108); Jr 4936 K עוֹלָם rd. with Q ‏עֵילָם‎; Ps 128 זוּ demonstrative pron., not relative ?, cf. Gesenius-K. §126y (Kraus BK 152:234 :: Dahood Psalms 1:75); Pr 2310 for גְּבוּל עוֹלָם (so 2228) rd. ? גְּ׳ אַלְמָנָה (BHS).

 

עָרֵל, SamP. ārəl: > ‏ערל, עָרְלָה; MHeb., DSS (Kuhn Konkordanz 170); Syr. urlā: cs. עֲרַל and עֶרֶל Ezk 449 (Bauer-L. Heb. 552p, q), ‏עֲרֵלָה‎, ‏עֲרֵלִים‎, ‏עַרְלֵי: —1. provided with a foreskin, uncircumcised (de Vaux Inst. 1:78ff = Lebensordnungen 1:86ff): עָרֵל זָכָל Gn 1714, כָּל־עָרֵל (excluded from the passover) Ex 1248 ; עֲרֵלִים the young Israelites in the wilderness Jos 57, the Philistines Ju 143 1518 1S 146 314 2S 120 1C 104; sg. 1S 1726.36; belonging to another tribe without closer definition עָרֵל וְטָמֵא Is 521, ‏עֶרֶל בָּשָׂר (parallel with ‏בֶּן־נֵכָר‎) Ezk 449, ‏עַרְלֵי בָשָׂר (בְּנֵי נֵכָר) 447; cj. Jr 925b for עֲרֵלִים prp. הָאֵלֶּה, so according to the listing of the circumcised tribes in 25a (Rudolph Jer.3 69f); —2. metaph: a) עַרְלֵי לֵב/עֶרֶל Ezk 447.9 and לְבָבָם הֶעָרֵל Lv 2641 meaning: those incapable of contact with God (Reicke-R. Hw. 224f); b) unskilled and inept in speech עֲרַל שְׂפָתַיִם Ex 612.30 (cf. qal ערל, 1QH 2:18), in hearing (‏עֲרֵלָה אָזְנָם‎) Jr 610; c) of trees, the fruit (‏עָרְלָה, → ‏ערל qal) of which is not allowed to be eaten for the present Lv 1923; —3. esp. in Ez: עֲרֵלִים Ezk 2810 3118 3219–32 (9 times) one who dwells in the world of the dead (see Lods CRAIBL (1943):271–83; Eissfeldt Kl. Schr. 3:1–8; Zimmerli BK 13:785f), cj. Ezk 3227 for מֵעֲרֵלִים rd. with Sept. מֵעוֹלָם.

 

זָכָר: II זכר; Jerome zochor, Ex 1714 MS זֶכֶר: MHb. man, male animal, phallus; Ug. dakaru man AfO 19:194b; Arm. (‏זכר and) דכר (→ BArm.) DISO 77, Arb. ḏakar, OSArb. ḏkr; Akk. zak(a)ru, zikaru (MAOG 11/1–2:23ff; CAD 21:23, 110f); etym. unknown: ? basic meaning phallus (BL 462r): זְכָרִים; commonly collective: —1. man, male person :: ‏נְקֵבָה; זָ׳ וּנְ׳ (EgArm. Nab. JArm. Montgomery  [vol. 1, p. 271]  Incantation Texts 6:2f) Gn 127 52 619 72 (Sam., Sept.).3.9.16 Lv 31.6 127 1533 Nu 53 Dt 416 Lv 275–7; כָּל־זָ׳ every male Gn 1710.12.23 3415.22.24f Ex 1248 Lv 611.22 76 Nu 12.20.22 315.22.28.34.39 1810 2662 317.17 Ju 2111 1K 1115f 2C 3119; עָרֵל זָ׳ Gn 1714; זָ׳ Lv 122 Is 667 and בֵּן זָ׳ Jr 2015 male child, בְּכֹר זָ׳ first-born males Nu 340.43; זְכָרִים men Ex 1312.15 Jos 54 172 Ezr 83–14 2C 3116; צַלְמֵי זָ׳ images of men (phalli ?, → ‏זְכוּר and ‏זִכָּרוֹן‎ 4) Ezk 1617; שָׁכַב אֵת זָ׳ homosexual activity Lv 1822 2013; מִשְׁכַּב ז׳ female sexual intercourse with a man Nu 3117f.35 Ju 2111f; זָ׳ is unable to bear a child Jr 306; —2. male animal especially ram, meaning derived from Arm., Ex 125 cj. 3419 Lv 13.10 31 423 2219 Dt 1519, Mal 114 (cj. זָכֶה flawless). †

 

כרת: MHeb. to cut off, hif. to exterminate, MHeb.2 to divorce of man and woman, to make a covenant; Ph. Mo. (Jean-H. Dictionnaire 127); Akk. karātu (AHw. 448b); Tigrin. karata, Tigr. kartata to bite off (Leslau 27, Wb. 401a).

                   qal (130 times): pf. ‏כָּרַת‎, ‏כָּרָֽתָּ‎, ‏כָּרַתִּי‎, ‏כָּֽרְתוּ‎, ‏כְּרָתוֹ‎;  impf. ‏רָת־‎/‏וַיִּכְרֹת‎, ‏אֶכְרֹת‎, ‏אֶכְרָות־ Jos 97 (Bauer-L. Heb. 357), ‏תִּכְרְתוּ‎, ‏יִכְרֹֽתוּ‎, ‏תִּכְרֹתוּן‎, ‏רָת־‎/‏נִכְרֹת‎, ‏נִכְרְתָה‎, ‏וַיִּכְרְתֻהוּ‎, ‏נִכְרְתֶנּוּ‎; impv. ‏כָּרְתָה‎, ‏רָת־‎/‏כְּרֹת‎, ‏כִּרְתוּ‎; inf. ‏רָת־‎/‏כְּרֹת‎, ‏לִכְרוֹת‎,  ‏כָּרְתִי‎, ‏כָּרוֹת‎; pt. ‏כֹּרֵת‎, ‏כָּרוּת‎, ‏כְּרוּת‎, ‏כְּרֻתֹת‎; THAT 1:857ff.: —1. to cut off: ‏עָרְלָה Ex 425, ‏רֹאשׁ, ‏יָד‎ 1S 54, ‏כְּנַף מְעִיל 1S 245, כְּרוּת שָׁפְכָה one with his penis cut off, a eunuch (Neufeld 220f; Reicke-R. Hw. 413) Dt 232, > כָּרוּת Lv 2224 (animal); —2. to cut down: wood Ju 948, אֲשֵׁרָה Ex 3413, מִפְלֶצֶת 1K 1513; —3. to fell (Mesha 25 ?): יַעַר Jr 4623, ‏עֵצִים 1K 520, ‏עֵץ Dt 195, כֹּרֵת wood-cutter, lumberjack Is 148; —4. to cut out > exterminate (vRad 1:263174) Jr 1119, זֶרַע 5016; —5. ‏כָּרַת בְּרִית (for all quotations → בְּרִית (a, 1), Akk. TAR (to cut) beriti, Albright BASOR 121:21f.; Soggin VT 18:210ff.; trad. (since Gesenius Thes. 718) as ὅρκια τέμνειν and foedus icere, ferire referring to the cutting of a sacrificial animal as is customary when making a covenant (→ בתר pi.) Gn 159f :: Pedersen Eid 46: to cut > to decide, to settle (cf. I גזר, I חרץ), :: Noth Ges. Stud. 147; Eilers WdO 2:467f.: < ina berı̄t, birı̄tu, gap; THAT 1:857ff.; a) to come to an arrangement Dt 2911.13 (→ Arslan Tash, Donner-R. Inschriften 27:8–10); b) elliptical כָּרַת לְ to grant an arrangement to somebody 1S 112 228 2S 53, כָּ׳ עִם to make a covenant with, 1K 89 2C 510 and 718 (→ Rudolph Chr. 211, 217); c) with דָּבָר instead of בְּרִית Hg 25  [vol. 2, p. 501]  Ps 1059 1C 1615f; with אֲמָנָה Neh 101; —Is 578 (→ II כרה).

                   nif: (70 times, not in Dt): ‏רָֽת‎/‏נִכְרַת‎, ‏רָֽתָה‎/‏נִכְרְתָה‎, ‏נִכְרַתָּ‎, ‏רָֽתוּ‎/‏נִכְרְתוּ‎; impf. ‏יִכָּרֵת‎, ‏יִכָּ֫רֶת־‎, ‏יִכָּרֵֽתוּ‎, ‏יִכָּרֵתֽוּן‎; inf. ‏הִכָּרֵת‎: —1 a) to be felled עֵץ Jb 147; b) to be cut off, disappear (מַיִם) Jos 313 47 (נִכְרְתוּ מֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן ? dl., BH), lose one’s way 316; —2. (pass. to qal 4, :: Tsevat HUCA 32:191ff.: to hif.) a) to be exterminated (execration formula, Zimmerli ZAW 66:13ff.; Boecker 1454; THAT 1:858) Gn 911 Jos 923 Is 1113 Hos 84 (Versions pl., → Rudolph 157), מָשִׁיחַ Da 926 alt. to disappear, → c), בְּלִיַּעַל Nah 21, לְשׁוֹן תַּהְפֻּכוֹת Pr 1031; b) to be wiped out, be eliminated: שֵׁם Is 4819 565 Ru 410, cj. 1S 2016 (rd. שֵׁם יְהוֹנ׳ יִכָּרֵת); ‏מַשָּׂא‎ Is 2225, ‏אוֹת 5513, ‏אֱמוּנָה Jr 728, ‏עָסִיס Jl 15, אֹכֶל 116, weapons Zech 910, תִּקְוָה Pr 2318 2414; אֲשֶׁר פָּקַדְתִּי עָלֶיהָ Zeph 37; c) to be cut off, excluded from the religious community (‏יִשְׂר׳‎, ‏עַם‎, ‏עַמִּים‎, ‏עֵדָה‎, ‏קֵָהָל‎), (Zimmerli ZAW 66:13ff., → ‏שׁמד nif.): וְנִכְרַת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מִן Lv 174.9 †, וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִיא with מִן Ex 1215 and elsewhere; abs. Nu 1531; מִקֶּרֶב Ex 3114 ‏מִלִּפְנֵי Lv 223, ‏מִתּוֹךְ Nu 1920; —3. misc.: to perish: ‏הָאָרֶץ through ‏רָעָב‎ Gn 4136, to be chewed ‏בָּשָׂר between the teeth Nu 1133; בְּרִית to be made (→ qal 5) Sir 4418.

                   pu: pf. כָּרַּת (Bauer-L. Heb. 222s), כֹּרָֽתָה: —1. to be cut down (Asherah) Ju 628; —2. to be cut off (navel string) Ezk 164. †

                   hif: pf. ‏הִכְרִית‎, ‏הִכְרִיתָה‎, ‏הִכְרַתִּי‎, ‏הִכְרִיתוּ‎, ‏תִּיךָ‎/‏הִכְרַתִּיו‎; impf. ‏יַכְרִית‎, ‏יַּכְרֵת‎(‏וַ‎), ‏וָאַכְרִית‎, ‏תַּכְרִיתֵךְ‎, ‏נַכְרִיתֶנָּה‎; inf. ‏הַכְרִית‎, ‏הַכְרִיתֶֽךָ: —1. to exterminate (Zimmerli ZAW 66:13ff., pass. nif. 2a, THAT 1:858) Lv 2622 Dt 191 (17 times), with מִן from Ex 85 1S 289 (23 times), with מִקֶּרֶב Lv 1710 203.5f Mi 59, with מִתּוֹךְ Nu 418 Jr 447 Ezk 148, with מֵעִם 1S 233, with מֵעַל 1K 97 Zeph 13, with מִפְּנֵי before Dt 1229 2S 79; —2. God: a) exterminates (through early death, → nif. 2a) P, H, Ezk ca. 50 times: (עָם) Ezk 257.16, כְּשָׁפִים Mi 511, זֶרַע 1S 2422 Mal 212, הָמוֹן Ezk 3015, ‏שִׂפְתֵי חֲלָקוֹת Ps 124; b) destroys: ‏חַמָּנִים Lv 2630, metaph. prey ‏טֶרֶף of the “lions” Nah 214; withdraws ‏חַסְדּוֹ with ‏מֵעִם‎ 1S 2015; —3. misc. a) ‏הִכְרִית with acc. and לְ, to destroy someone/something for someone 1K 1410 2121 2K 98, Is 1422 Jr 474 Mal 212; reflexive, to prepare oneself for destruction Jr 448; b) מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה to have to kill part of the catttle 1K 185, to cause to perish Nu 418; c) לְהַכְרִית הָיָה to fall prey to destruction Ps 10913.

                   hof: pf. הָכְרַת: to be exterminated, fail, be lost Jl 19. †

          Der. ‏כְּרִיתוּת‎, ‏כְּרֻתוֹת‎; river name ‏כְּרִית.

 

I פרר: MHeb. pi. to crumble, hif. to break, declare invalid, pilp. to crumble, be stirred up; DSS (Kuhn Konkordanz 181; THAT 2:488); JArm. af. to make invalid, itpa. to be disturbed, itpalp. to be crumbled; Deir Alla prr 2:17, pr foolishness (Hoftijzer-vdK. Deir Alla 246; for other suggestions on reading and meaning see Hoftijzer-Jongeling Dictionary 934, pr II); Sam. to awake (Ben-H. Lit. Or. 2:581); Ug. prr, 1. Dietrich-L.-S. Texte 1, 2:i:12f parallel with ṯbr; 2. Dietrich-L.-S. Texte 1, 15:iii:29f parallel with ṯn, to break an agreement, annul (Gordon Textbook §19:2121; Driver Myths2 156a; Fisher Parallels 1: p. 316 entry 468; p. 317 entry 470; on the second instance see also Gray Krt220 :: Aistleitner 2254: pr to flee); Pun. prr ? (Jean-H. Dictionnaire 237; but Hoftijzer-Jongeling Dictionary s.v. brk I); Akk. parāru G-theme: to remove oneself; D-theme: to disperse, scatter (AHw. 829f); on Ug. and Akk. cf. Fensham ZAW 74 (1962) 5; by-form of פור (THAT 2:486–488).

                   hif. (Jenni Piel 177f :: ‏שׁבר‎); 43 times: pf. ‏הֵפֵר‎, ‏הֵפַֽר‎, ‏הֵפִיר Ezk 1719 Ps 3310 → ‏פור‎, ‏הֵפַרְתָּה‎, ‏הֵפֵרוּ‎, sf. ‏הֲפֵרָם‎; impf. ‏יָפֵר‎, ‏וַיָּפֶר‎, ‏תָּפֵר‎, ‏אָפֵר‎, ‏וַיָּפֵרוּ‎, ‏תָּפֵרוּ‎, sf. ‏יְפֵרֶנּוּ‎; impv. ‏הָפֵר‎, ‏הָפֵרָה‎ inf. abs. ‏הָפֵר‎, cs. ‏הָפֵר‎, ‏הָפֵיר‎ Zech 1110, sf. ‏הַפְרְכֶם; pt. מֵפֵר.

          —1. with acc.: to break, destroy, suspend, foil, make useless: —a. בְּרִית (THAT 2:487f; W. Thiel VT 20 (1970) 214–229): —i. the people break a בְּרִית which previously existed between them 1K 1519/2C 163 Is 338 Ezk 1715f.18; —ii. the people break their בְּרִית with God (or Yahweh) Gn 1714 Lv 2615 Dt 3116.20 Is 245 Jr 1110 3132 Ezk 1659 447 (for ‏וַיָּפֵרוּ‎ rd. with versions ‏וַתָּפֵרוּ‎); —iii. God (or Yahweh) suspends the ‏בְּרִית with Israel Lv 2644 Jr 1421; (with all nations) Zech 1110; he  [vol. 3, p. 975]  does not suspend his בְּרִית with Israel Ju 21(Halbe FRLANT 114 (1975) 36637); —iv. הֵפֵר אֶת־הָאַחֲוָה Yahweh annuls the brotherly relationship between Judah and Israel Zech 1114; —b. people break, or suspend, arrangements: ‏מִצְוָה Nu 1531, ‏מִצְוֹת Ezr 914, ‏מִשְׁפָּט Jb 408, ‏תּוֹרָה Ps 119126, ‏יִרְאָה (fear of God) Jb 154, עֵצָה (plan, scheme) 2S 1534 1714 Ezr 45 Neh 49; Is 1427 (parallel with יָעַץ); Ps 3310 → פור.

          —2. misc.: —a. ‏מֵפֵר אֹתוֹת בַּדִּים‎ Yahweh frustrates the omens of diviners (→ V *‏בַּד) Is 4425; —b. ‏הֵפֵר מַחֲשָׁבוֹת plans go wrong Pr 1522; ‏הֵפֵר מַחְשְׁבוֹת עֲרוּמִים God frustrates the schemes of the crafty Jb 512; —c. /נְדָרִים הֵפֵר נֵדֶר to break vows Nu 309.13f.16; —d. the בְּרִית of Yahweh with the day and the night is not to be broken אִם־תָּפֵרוּ Jr 3320, see Rudolph Jer.3 218 :: alt. prp. תֻּפַר, cf. v. 21; —e. ‏הֵפֵר כַּעַס of God, “to break anger”, meaning to withhold anger (NEB: cancel; REB: abandon) Ps 855 :: KBL : to remove, cj. with Sept. ‏הָסֵר (NRSV: put away); cf. Ps 8934 for ‏אָפִיר prp. ‏אָסִיר‎ → ‏סור.

          —cj.: Qoh 125 for ‏וְתָפֵר‎ prp. ‏וְתֻפַר‎/‏וְתֻפַּר‎ the caper-buds will be broken down (cf. NEB, REB: have no more zest), or ‏תִּפְרֶה‎ produces fruit, or alternatively ‏תִּפְרַח‎ blossoms, see Hertzberg KAT 17/4:207 (:: KBL s.v. 1: MT hif. intr. the plant breaks, bursts); RSV, NRSV: desire fails. †

                   hof: impf. ‏תֻּפַר, תֻּפָֽר: to be broken, invalidated, frustrated עֵצָה Is 810, בְּרִית Jr 3321 Zech 1111, cf. v. 10, see hif. 1 a iv. †

  

Koehler, Ludwig, Walter Baumgartner, and M. E. J. Richardson, eds. (2000) The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3.6 (Leiden: Brill)

 

 

Kapelrud. Botterweck, G. Johannes, Helmer Ringgren, and Heinz-Josef Fabry, eds. (2006)Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Revised; (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans).

 

Harris, W. Hall, eds. (2005) The NET Bible Notes. 1st, (Richardson, TX: Biblical Studies Press)

  

Harris, R. Laird, Gleason L. Archer, and Bruce K. Waltke, eds. (1980) Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. (Chicago: Moody Press).

 

Astour, Michael C. Freedman, David Noel, ed. (2008) The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. (New Haven: Yale University Press)

 

9 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεὸς πρὸς Αβρααμ Σὺ δὲ τὴν διαθήκην μου διατηρήσεις, σὺ καὶ τὸ σπέρμα σου μετὰ σὲ εἰς τὰς γενεὰς αὐτῶν.  10 καὶ αὕτη ἡ διαθήκη, ἣν διατηρήσεις, ἀνὰ μέσον ἐμοῦ καὶ ὑμῶν καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ σπέρματός σου μετὰ σὲ εἰς τὰς γενεὰς αὐτῶν· περιτμηθήσεται ὑμῶν πᾶν ἀρσενικόν,  11 καὶ περιτμηθήσεσθε τὴν σάρκα τῆς ἀκροβυστίας ὑμῶν, καὶ ἔσται ἐν σημείῳ διαθήκης ἀνὰ μέσον ἐμοῦ καὶ ὑμῶν.  12 καὶ παιδίον ὀκτὼ ἡμερῶν περιτμηθήσεται ὑμῖν πᾶν ἀρσενικὸν εἰς τὰς γενεὰς ὑμῶν, ὁ οἰκογενὴς τῆς οἰκίας σου καὶ ὁ ἀργυρώνητος ἀπὸ παντὸς υἱοῦ ἀλλοτρίου, ὃς οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ σπέρματός σου.  13 περιτομῇ περιτμηθήσεται ὁ οἰκογενὴς τῆς οἰκίας σου καὶ ὁ ἀργυρώνητος, καὶ ἔσται ἡ διαθήκη μου ἐπὶ τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν εἰς διαθήκην αἰώνιον.  14 καὶ ἀπερίτμητος ἄρσην, ὃς οὐ περιτμηθήσεται τὴν σάρκα τῆς ἀκροβυστίας αὐτοῦ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ὀγδόῃ, ἐξολεθρευθήσεται ἡ ψυχὴ ἐκείνη ἐκ τοῦ γένους αὐτῆς, ὅτι τὴν διαθήκην μου διεσκέδασεν.

Genesis 17:9   And God said to Abraam, “Now as for you, you shall keep my covenant, you and your offspring after you throughout their generations. 10 And this is the covenant, which you shall keep, between me and you and between your offspring after you throughout their generations: Every male of yours shall be circumcised, 11 and you shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskins, and it shall exist as a covenant sign between me and you. 12 And a youngster of eight days shall be circumcised among you—every male—throughout your generations, the homebred of your household and the one bought with money from any son of a foreigner, who is not of your offspring. 13 The homebred of your household and the one bought with money shall be circumcised with circumcision, and my covenant shall be on your flesh for an everlasting covenant. 14 And as for an uncircumcised male who shall not be circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin on the eighth day, that soul shall be destroyed from his kin, for he has scattered my covenant.”

 

διατηρέω impf. διετήρουν; fut. διατηρήσω; 1 aor. διετήρησα. Pass. 1 aor. διετηρήθην ; pf. ptc. διατετηρημένος (all LXX) (Pla. et al.; ins [e.g. OGI 229, 16 al.; SEG XXVIII, 1540, 18: 62/61 BC]; pap, LXX; TestDan 6:8; TestAsh 6:3; JosAs 13:12; EpArist; Philo, Aet. M. 35; Jos., Ant. 6, 101; 10, 42) gener. of careful watching.

          1. to keep someth. mentally with implication of duration, keep τὰ ῥήματα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ treasure the words in the heart Lk 2:51 (=συνετήρει 2:19; cp. Gen 37:11; Da 7:28 Theod. v.l.); βουλήν keep counsel Dg 8:10 (cp. Diod. S. 4, 16, 3 ὅρκον διετήρησε; EpArist 206 τ. ἀλήθειαν; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 210).

          2. to keep oneself from doing something, keep free of δ. ἑαυτὸν ἔκ τινος keep oneself free fr. someth. Ac 15:29 (cp. Pr 21:23; TestDan 6:8 ἑαυτοὺς ἀπό).—DELG s.v. τηρέω. M-M. New Docs 3, 65. TW.

 

περιτέμνω 2 aor. περιέτεμον; pf. περιτέτμηκα LXX. Pass.: 1 fut. περιτμηθήσομαι; 1 aor. περιετμήθην; pf. 3 sg. περιτέτμηται (Just., D. 28, 4); ptc. περιτετμημένος LXX; plpf. 3 sg. περιετέτμητο (Just., D. 46, 3) (Hom. et al.) ‘to cut off around’; in our lit. and the LXX, somet. fig., only in the sense: to cut off the foreskin of the male genital organ, circumcise (so somet. as act., somet. as mid. [‘circumcise oneself’], since Hdt. 2, 36, 2; 2, 104, 1 [of the Egyptians and several other peoples], also Diod. S. 1, 28, 3; 1, 55, 5; 3, 32, 4 [Egyptians, Colchians, Ἰουδαῖοι]; Ptolemaeus, Περὶ Ἡρώδου τ. βασιλέως [I AD]: 199 fgm. 1 Jac.; Strabo 17, 2, 5; Philo Bybl. [c. 100 AD]: 790 fgm. [p. 807] 2, 33 p. 812, 8 Jac. [in Eus., PE 1, 10, 33]; Sallust. 9 p. 18, 17; PLond I, 24, 12f p. 32 [163 BC]; PTebt 291, 33; 292, 7; 20; 293, 12; 14; 19; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 77 I, 11; III, 11 [149 AD]; OdeSol 11:2; TestLevi 6:3; Philo Alex.; Joseph.; Just.) in our lit. prob. only in act. and pass.

          a. lit., w. acc. of pers. Lk 1:59; 2:21 (s. Schwyzer II 372); J 7:22; Ac 7:8; 15:5; 16:3; 21:21; B 9:8 (Gen 17:23ff). Pass. be circumcised, have oneself circumcised (Orig., C. Cels. 1, 22, 4; Did., Gen. 75, 6; B-D-F §314) Ac 15:1, 24 v.l.; 1 Cor 7:18b; Gal 2:3 (Ptolemaeus, Περὶ Ἡρώδου τ. βασιλέως: 199 Jac. [I AD] Ἰδουμαῖοι ἀναγκασθέντες περιτέμνεσθαι. S. SBelkin, JBL 54, ’35, 43–47); 5:2f; 6:12, 13b. οἱ περιτεμνόμενοι those who have themselves circumcised vs. 13a. περιτετμημένος circumcised, in the state of being circumcised 1 Cor 7:18a; Gal 6:13a v.l.

          b. fig.

          α. of baptism περιετμήθητε περιτομῇ ἀχειροποιήτῳ Col 2:11 (OCullmann, D. Tauflehre des NT ’48, 50–63).

          β. Barnabas maintains strongly that the scripture does not require a physical circumcision: περιέτεμεν ἡμῶν τὴν καρδίαν 9:1a. The κύριος says περιτμήθητε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν vs. 1b. Obviously Jer 4:4 (cp. Dt 10:16; OdeSol 11:2) is meant; B comes closer to it in περιτμήθητε τῷ κυρίῳ ὑμῶν let yourselves be circumcised for your Lord 9:5a, and in the explanation of it περιτμήθητε τὴν σκληροκαρδίαν ὑμῶν vs. 5b. What is true of the heart is also true of the ears περιέτεμεν ἡμῶν τὰς ἀκοάς 9:4. Cp. 10:12. In 9:6 it is acknowledged that circumcision is somet. justified thus: περιτέτμηται ὁ λαὸς εἰς σφραγῖδα, and it is explained that Ἀβραὰμ ἐν πνεύματι προβλέψας εἰς τὸν Ἰησοῦν περιέτεμεν vs. 7.—Schürer I 536ff–40; Dssm., B 149ff [BS 151–3]; UWilcken, HGunkel and PWendland, APF 2, 1903, 4–31; WOtto, Priester u. Tempel im hellenist. Ägypten I 1905, 213ff; JMatthes, De Besnijdenis: Teylers Theol. Tijdschrift 6, 1908, 163–91; FDölger, Sphragis 1911, 51ff; Billerb. IV 1928, 23–40; FBryk, D. Beschneidung b. Mann u. Weib ’31; JSasson, JBL 85, ’66, 473–76; JLieu, Circumcision, Women, and Salvation: NTS 40, ’94, 358–70.—RAC II, 159–69; BHHW I 223–25; TRE V 714–24. New Docs 3, 81; M-M. EDNT. TW.

 

περιτμηθήσεται περιτέμνω (περί, τομός) Verb third singular future passive indicative

περιτμηθήσεσθε περιτέμνω (περί, τομός) Verb second plural future passive indicative

 

ἀρσενικός, ή, όν (s. ἄρσην; Callim., Epigr. 25; PLille 1, 10 [III BC]; POxy 38, 7; PGM 4, 2519; oft. LXX; TestSol 1:7; TestJob 53:1 [ἀρρ-]; ApcMos 15) male φρονεῖν τι ἀ. περί τινος think anything male about someone=‘think of someone as a male’ (with emphasis on sexuality) w. a female as subj. 2 Cl 12:5.—DELG s.v. ἄρσην.

 

ἀκροβυστία, ας, ἡ (prob. from ἀκροποσθία [Hippocrates, Aph. 6, 19; Aristot., HA 1, 13, 493a, 29], connected by popular etymology w. βύειν; B-D-F §120, 4; Mlt-H. 277; found only in Bibl. and eccl. Gk.; Etym. Magn. p. 53, 47; Lampe).

          1. lit. prepuce, foreskin (opp. περιτομή). ἄνδρες ἀ. ἔχοντες uncircumcised people (=gentiles; cp. Gen 34:14) Ac 11:3.—1 Cor 7:18f. ἀπερίτμητος ἀκροβυστίᾳ w. uncircumcised foreskin B 9:5.

          2. fig. uncircumcision as a state of being Ro 2:25ff; Gal 5:6; 6:15. πιστεύειν δἰ ἀκροβυστίας to believe as an uncircumcised man, i.e. as a non-Judean or gentile Ro 4:11; B 13:7; cp. Ro 4:10–12. W. ref. to the sins of the gentile world νεκροὶ . . . τῇ ἀ. τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν dead through your uncircumcised (i.e. full of vice, in the gentile manner) flesh Col 2:13 (cp. Gen 17:11 σὰρξ τῆς ἀ.).

          3. abstr. for concr. noncircumcised, gentiles i.e. non-Judeans (beside περιτομή) Ro 3:30; 4:9; Col 3:11; Eph 2:11. τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς ἀ. the gospel for the gentile world (gospel of/about uncircumcision is less prob., for the corresponding statement about Peter would call for an unlikely emphasis on circumcision by Peter, and vs. 8 balances ἔθνη against περιτομή) Gal 2:7.—DELG s.v. ἀκ- 44. M-M (no pap examples). TW.

 

ἀλλότριος, ία, ον (ἄλλος; Hom.+; DELG I 64 s.v. ἄλλος)

          1. pert. to what belongs to another, not one’s own, strange (opp. ἴδιος; Περὶ ὕψους 4, 1; Epict. 2, 4, 10; 3, 24, 3f; Proverb. Aesopi 114 P.; SIG 982, 5f; pap since III BC, e.g. BGU 1121, 22 [5 BC] μήτε ἴδια μήτ̓ ἀλλότρια; 15, 15; Jos., Ant. 18, 46; 19, 305).

          a. adj. ἀ. οἰκέτης another’s slave (Dio Chrys. 14 [31], 34 ἀλλ. οἰκ.; Jos., Ant. 18, 47.—ἀ. δοῦλος as early as Pla., Leg. 9, 9, 868a; cp. Diod. S. 36, 2, 2) Ro 14:4; γυνὴ ἀ. (Chariton 6, 3, 7; POxy 1067, 6ff) Hm 4, 1, 1; 12, 2, 1. καυχᾶσθαι ἐν ἀ. κόποις boast about work done by others 2 Cor 10:15 (cp. Epict. 1, 28, 23 ἀλλότριον ἔργον=another’s deed; Tat. 26, 1 λόγους ἀ. ‘words of others’); κοινωνεῖν ἁμαρτίαις ἀ. participate in other people’s sins 1 Ti 5:22. ἐν ἀ. κανόνι καυχᾶσθαι boast (of work already done) in another’s field 2 Cor 10:16. πάντα ἀ. εἰσι (w. ὑπ̓ ἐξουσίαν ἑτέρου) Hs 1:3. ἀ. αἷμα Hb 9:25. θεμέλιον Ro 15:20. ἀλλοτρίας σάρκας καταφαγεῖν B 10:4b. τὰς ἀ. ἐντολὰς (opp. παρὰ τοῦ κυρίου δεδομένας) Papias (2:3). Of lands (Isis aretalogy SEG VIII, 548, 31 [I BC]) strange, foreign πάροικον ἐν γῇ ἀ. Ac 7:6 (Ex 2:22; ParJer 7:34). παροικεῖν εἰς γῆν . . . ὡς ἀ. sojourn in a land as if it were foreign Hb 11:9. ἀ. τοῦ θεοῦ ὄντες aliens to God 1 Cl 7:7 (cp. PsSol 17:13 ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ; Herm. Wr. 2, 16; Just., D. 8, 2 ἀλλοτρίῳ τοῦ πράγματος; B-D-F §182, 3); so τὰ κοσμικὰ ὡς ἀ. ἡγεῖσθαι, i.e. to look on them as someth. that does not concern Christians 2 Cl 5:6.

          b. subst.

          α. τὸ ἀ. other people’s property (Epict. 2, 6, 8; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 216) B 10:4a. ἐν τῷ ἀ. πιστοί faithful w. what belongs to another Lk 16:12 (the wealth of this world is foreign to the Christian, cp. Epict. 4, 5, 15 of temporal goods: οὐδὲν ἴδιον τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἐστίν, ἀλλὰ πάντα ἀλλότρια; also 2, 6, 8; 24.—S. ἡμέτερος). ἀλλοτρίοις ἐπίσκοπος 1 Pt 4:15 P72, ‘meddling in other people’s affairs’=Lat. ‘alienis custos’, but s. prec. entry τοῦ ἀ. ἅψασθαι Hs 1:11; ἀλλοτρίων ἐπιθυμεῖν ibid. (cp. Ar. 15, 4 οὐκ ἐπιθυμοῦσι . . . τὰ ἀ.).

          β. ὁ ἀ. the stranger (=‘one who is unknown’ cp. Sir 8:18) J 10:5a. οἱ ἀλλότριοι strange people vs. 5b; specif. aliens (LXX; Jos., Bell. 7, 266) Mt 17:25f (opp. οἱ υἱοί).

          2. pert. to being outside one’s customary experience or practice, alien, unsuitable (cp. UPZ 113, 11 [II BC]; POxy 282, 9) στάσις ἀ., explained by ξένη τοῖς ἐκλεκτοῖς τοῦ θεοῦ 1 Cl 1:1. ἀ. γνώμη strange=false (cp. θεὸς ἀλλότριος Ps 80:10; ParJer 7:30) viewpoint IPhld 3:3; ἀ. βοτάνη ITr 6:1; χρῶμα IRo ins.

          3. pert. to being different and therefore in opposition, hostile, as subst. enemy (Hom. et al.; Polyb. 27, 15, 13; Diod. S. 11, [p. 48]27 et al.; 1 Macc 1:38; 2:7; cp. OGI 90, 91) παρεμβολὰς κλίνειν ἀλλοτρίων Hb 11:34.—M-M. TW.

 

αἰώνιος (ία Pla., Tim. 38b; Jer 39:40; Ezk 37:26; OdeSol 11:22; TestAbr A; JosAs 8:11 cod. A; 2 Th 2:16; Hb 9:12; mss. Ac 13:48; 2 Pt 1:11; AcPl BMM recto 27=Ox 1602, 29; Just., A I, 8, 4 al.; B-D-F §59, 2; Mlt-H. 157), ον eternal (since Hyperid. 6, 27; Pla.; ins, pap, LXX, En, TestSol, TestAbr A, Test12Patr; JosAs 12:12; GrBar 4:16; ApcEsdr; ApcMos 29; Ps.-Phocyl. 112; Just.; Tat. 17, 1; Ath., Mel.; standard epithet for princely, esp. imperial, power: OGI index VIII; BGU 176, 12; 303, 2; 309, 4; Sb 7517, 5 [211/12 AD] κύριος αἰ.; al. in pap; Jos., Ant. 7, 352).

          1. pert. to a long period of time, long ago χρόνοις αἰ. long ages ago Ro 16:25; πρὸ χρόνων αἰ. before time began 2 Ti 1:9; Tit 1:2 (in these two last pass. the prep. bears the semantic content of priority; on χρόνος αἰ. cp. OGI 248, 54; 383, 10).

          2. pert. to a period of time without beginning or end, eternal of God (Ps.-Pla., Tim. Locr. 96c θεὸν τ. αἰώνιον; IBM 894, 2 αἰ. κ. ἀθάνατος τοῦ παντὸς φύσις; Gen 21:33; Is 26:4; 40:28; Bar 4:8 al.; Philo, Plant. 8; 74; SibOr fgm. 3, 17 and 4; PGM 1, 309; 13, 280) Ro 16:26; of the Holy Spirit in Christ Hb 9:14. θρόνος αἰ. 1 Cl 65:2 (cp. 1 Macc 2:57).

          3. pert. to a period of unending duration, without end (Diod. S. 1, 1, 5; 5, 73, 1; 15, 66, 1 δόξα αἰ. everlasting fame; in Diod. S. 1, 93, 1 the Egyptian dead are said to have passed to their αἰ. οἴκησις; Arrian, Peripl. 1, 4 ἐς μνήμην αἰ.; Jos., Bell. 4, 461 αἰ. χάρις=a benefaction for all future time; OGI 383, 10 [I BC] εἰς χρόνον αἰ.; EOwen, οἶκος αἰ.: JTS 38, ’37, 248–50; EStommel, Domus Aeterna: RAC IV 109–28) of the next life σκηναὶ αἰ. Lk 16:9 (cp. En 39:5). οἰκία, contrasted w. the οἰκία ἐπίγειος, of the glorified body 2 Cor 5:1. διαθήκη (Gen 9:16; 17:7; Lev 24:8; 2 Km 23:5 al.; PsSol 10:4 al.) Hb 13:20. εὐαγγέλιον Rv 14:6; κράτος in a doxolog. formula (=εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας) 1 Ti 6:16. παράκλησις 2 Th 2:16. λύτρωσις Hb 9:12. κληρονομία (Esth 4:17m) vs. 15; AcPl Ha 8, 21. αἰ. ἀπέχειν τινά (opp. πρὸς ὥραν) keep someone forever Phlm 15 (cp. Job 40:28). Very often of God’s judgment (Diod. S. 4, 63, 4 διὰ τὴν ἀσέβειαν ἐν ᾅδου διατελεῖν τιμωρίας αἰωνίου τυγχάνοντα; similarly 4, 69, 5; Jer 23:40; Da 12:2; Ps 76:6; 4 Macc 9:9; 13:15) κόλασις αἰ. (TestReub 5:5) Mt 25:46; 2 Cl 6:7; κρίμα αἰ. Hb 6:2 (cp. κρίσις αἰ. En 104:5). θάνατος B 20:1. ὄλεθρον (4 Macc 10:15) 2 Th 1:9. πῦρ (4 Macc 12:12; GrBar 4:16.—SibOr 8, 401 φῶς αἰ.) Mt 18:8; 25:41; Jd 7; Dg 10:7 (cp. 1QS 2:8). ἁμάρτημα Mk 3:29 (v.l. κρίσεως, κολάσεω, and ἁμαρτίας). On the other hand, of eternal life (Maximus Tyr. 6, 1d θεοῦ ζωὴ αἰ.; Diod. S. 8, 15, 3 life μετὰ τὸν θάνατον lasts εἰς ἅπαντα αἰῶνα; Da 12:2; 4 Macc 15:3; PsSol 3, 12; OdeSol 11:16c; JosAs 8:11 cod. A [p. 50, 2 Bat.]; Philo, Fuga 78; Jos., Bell. 1, 650; SibOr 2, 336) in the Reign of God: ζωὴ αἰ. (Orig., C. Cels. 2, 77, 3) Mt 19:16, 29; 25:46; Mk 10:17, 30; Lk 10:25; 18:18, 30; J 3:15f, 36; 4:14, 36; 5:24, 39; 6:27, 40, 47, 54, 68; 10:28; 12:25, 50; 17:2f; Ac 13:46, 48; Ro 2:7; 5:21; 6:22f; Gal 6:8; 1 Ti 1:16; 6:12; Tit 1:2; 3:7; 1J 1:2; 2:25; 3:15; 5:11, 13, 20; Jd 21; D 10:3; 2 Cl 5:5; 8:4, 6; IEph 18:1; Hv 2, 3, 2; 3, 8, 4 al. Also βασιλεία αἰ. 2 Pt 1:11 (ApcPt Rainer 9; cp. Da 4:3; 7:27; Philo, Somn. 2, 285; Mel., P. 68, 493; OGI 569, 24 ὑπὲρ τῆς αἰωνίου καὶ ἀφθάρτου βασιλείας ὑμῶν; Dssm. B 279f, BS  363). Of the glory in the next life δόξα αἰ. 2 Ti 2:10; 1 Pt 5:10 (cp. Wsd 10:14; Jos., Ant. 15, 376.—SibOr 8, 410 φῶς αἰῶνιον). αἰώνιον βάρος δόξης 2 Cor 4:17; σωτηρία αἰ. (Is 45:17; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 1, 19) Hb 5:9; short ending of Mk. Of unseen glory in contrast to the transitory world of the senses τὰ μὴ βλεπόμενα αἰώνια 2 Cor 4:18.—χαρά IPhld ins; δοξάζεσθαι αἰωνίῳ ἔργῳ be glorified by an everlasting deed IPol 8:1. DHill, Gk. Words and Hebr. Mngs. ’67, 186–201; JvanderWatt, NovT 31, ’89, 217–28 (J).—DELG s.v. αἰών. M-M. TW. Sv.

 

ἀπερίτμητος, ον (s. περιτέμνω; oft. LXX; Philo; Jos., Bell. 1, 34, Ant. 20, 45; in Plut., Mor. 495c=unmutilated).

          1. lit. uncircumcised (so also PEdgar 84, 14=Sb 6790, 14 [257 BC]; Just.) ἔθνη ἀπερίτμητα ἀκροβυστίᾳ (v.l. ἀκροβυστίαν) gentiles w. uncircumcised foreskin B 9:5a (Jer 9:25).

          2. fig. obdurate, ἀ. καρδίαις καὶ τοῖς ὠσίν uncir. in heart and ears Ac 7:51 (after Lev 26:41; Jer 6:10; Ezk 44:7, 9); ἀ. καρδίας B 9:5b (Jer 9:25b). Cp. Dssm., B 151 (BS  153).—DELG s.v. τέμνω. M-M. TW.

 

ἄρσην, εν, gen. ενος (Hom.+; SIG 1033; 1044, 3; 13; PSI 569, 6; 7 [III BC]; PGM 15, 18; LXX; TestSol 1:7 B; TestJob [ἀρρ-]; TestJos 3:7; JosAs 2:11; ParJer 8:3; EpArist 152; SibOr 3, 133; Ath. 20, 2; 22, 5; 34, 1; Just., D. 88, 1. The Attic form ἄρρην appears in Ac 7:19 v.l.; Ro 1:27a v.l.; 1:27ab Tdf., S. [but the last reads ἄρσεσιν for the third occurrence]; Rv 12:5 v.l., 13 v.l., S., Vog.; oft. pap, also Philo, Joseph., TestJob, TestJos; JosAs 2:11; Ar. 8:2; Just.; Ath. 22:4, R. 76, 20; Mel., P. 53, 392; GEg 252, 57; B 10:7. See W-S. §5, 27b; B-D-F §34, 2; Mlt-H. 103f) male (opp. θῆλυς, as Pla., Leg. 2, 9 p. 665c; PGM 15, 18) subst. τὸ ἄ. W. strong emphasis on the sex (syn. ἀνήρ ‘man’, s. ἀρσενοκοίτης) males Ro 1:27abc (cp. Demetr.: 722 fgm. 1, 9 Jac.; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 199). ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν αὐτούς God created them male and female (Gen 1:27; cp. PGM 5, 105) Mt 19:4; Mk 10:6; 1 Cl 33:5; 2 Cl 14:2. οὐκ ἔνι ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ Gal 3:28; cp. GEg 252, 57; 2 Cl 12:2, 5; GNaass 252, 60 (s. ἀρσενόθηλυς); πᾶν ἄρσεν Lk 2:23. The masc. as subst. εἴτε ἄρσενα εἴτε θήλειαν a son or a daughter GJs 4:1. The neut. ἄρσεν Rv 12:5, difft. vs. 13, comes fr. Is 66:7 and is in apposition to υἱόν. On the juxtaposition s. FBoll, ZNW 15, 1914, 253; BOlsson, Glotta 23, ’34, 112.—Cp. ἄνθρωπος. Schmidt, Syn. II 385–95. B. 84. DELG. M-M.

 

ἐξολεθρεύω fut. ἐξολεθρεύσω LXX; 1 aor. ἐξωλέθρευσα. Pass.: 1 fut. ἐξολεθρευθήσομαι; aor. ἐξωλεθρεύθην LXX (Crito [early II AD]: 200 fgm. 2 Jac.; TestSol 6:2 D ἐξολόθρευσον; JosAs ch. 11 cod. A [p. 53, 19 Bat.] ἐξολοθρευθῆναι; SibOr 5, 454; 12, 102; 14, 107; Just., D. 131, 5 ἐξολοθρευθήσεσθαι τὰ δαιμόνια; Test12Patr; Pel.-Leg. p. 23, 15; 24, 18; PCairMasp 2 III, 28 [VI AD].—As v.l. in Plut., Dio 965 [18, 9] Ziegler, Jos., Ant. 8, 270 N., and SibOr 3, 309 G. On the spelling of the word [ἐξολο-] s. B-D-F §32, 1; Thackeray p. 87f; Mlt-H. 71) to eliminate by destruction, destroy utterly, root out τινά 1 Cl 53:3 (Dt 9:14). τὶ: πάντα τὰ χείλη τὰ δόλια all lying lips 15:5 (Ps 11:4). τὶ ἔκ τινος someth. fr. someth. 22:6 (Ps 33:17). Pass. B 7:3 (Lev 23:29). ἐκ τοῦ λαοῦ Ac 3:23 (Lev 23:29). ἀπό τινος 1 Cl 14:4 (Ps 36:38, but without ἀπό τ. For the combination ἐ. ἀπὸ τ. γῆς cp. 1 Macc 2:40; Jdth 6:2). ἐκ γῆς 1 Pt 3:12 v.l. (Ps 33:17).—DELG s.v. ὄλλυμι. M-M. TW.

 

Bauer, W., F. W. Danker, W. F. Arndt, and F. W. Gingrich, eds. (2000) A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3d, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). 

 

ἀργυρώνητος, -ος, -ον         A 5–0–0–0–1–6

          Gn 17:12,13,23-27; Ex 12:44 bought with silver, purchased

          Cf. HARL 1986a, 68

 

διασκεδάννυμι/διασκεδάζω V 8–8–3–10–6–46

          Gn 17:14; Ex 32:25(bis); Lv 26:15-44 A: to scatter abroad [τινα] Ex 32:25; to turn away from [τινα ἀπό τινος] 2 Chr 16:3; to reject [τι] 2 Sm 15:31; to break [τι] Gn 17:14 P: to be dispersed Jb 38:24

          Cf. LE BOULLUEC 1989, 325-326

 

Lust, J., E. Eynikel, and K. Hauspie, eds. (2015) A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint. Third corrected; (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft). 

 

οἰκο-γενής, ές, born in the house, homebred, of slaves, Pl. Men. 82b, Satyr. Vit.Eur.Fr. 39 xii 27, Plb. 38.15.3, POxy. 48.4 (i A.D.), etc.; σῶμα γυναικεῖον οἰ. GDI 1842 (Delph.), cf. IG 9(1).1066 (Amphissa); τὸ γένος οἰ. GDI 1859, 1897, al.; also οἰ. ὄρτυγες Ar. Pax 789; ἀλεκτορίδες Arist. HA 558b20; κύων Plu. 2.480b : metaph., μανία οἰ., opp. ἔπηλυς, ib. 758e, cf. Ph. 1.479.

 

διασκεδ-άζω, = sq., LXX Ps. 32(33).10; disperse a tumour, Aët. 15.15.

 

Henry George Liddell et al. (1996), A Greek-English Lexicon (Oxford: Clarendon Press)

 

 

διασκεδάννυμι, vb. 1. Dismiss, disband. 2. Scatter, disperse (RBV: NETS uses this). 3. (of the wind) scatter. 4. (of persons) shatter, smash. 5. Break up, put an end to, get rid of, destroy.

 

J. Diggle et al. (2021), The Cambridge Greek Lexicon, vol. I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 362.

 

 

Kittel. Kittel, Gerhard and Geoffrey W. Bromiley, eds. (1964) Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans).

 

 

The Lexham Analytical Lexicon of the Septuagint (2012) (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press)

 

 

Harris, W. Hall, eds. (2005) The NET Bible Notes. 1st, (Richardson, TX: Biblical Studies Press)

 

 

Orr, James, ed. (1915) International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans)

 

 

Silva, Moisés, ed. (2014) The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis. 2nd. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan)

 

 

Brown, Francis, S. R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, eds. (1906) The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. (Oxford: Clarendon Press) 

 

 

Freedman, David Noel, ed. (2008) The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. (New Haven: Yale University Press)

 

Kidner, Derek, (1961) Genesis: An Introduction and Commentary. Vol. 1 of Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press)

 

 

Kenneth Barker, eds. NIV Study Bible (1985) (Grand Rapids: Zondervan)

 

 

Richard Pratt, Jr. ed. (2003) The Spirit of the Reformation Study Bible (1985) (Grand Rapids: Zondervan)

 

 

Raymond Edward Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland Edmund Murphy (1996), The Jerome Biblical Commentary (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall)

 

 

 

 

Allen P. Ross, (1985), Genesis, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books), 56–57.

 

 

Wenham, G.J., Genesis. Edited by D. A Carson, R. T France, J. A. Motyer, and Gordon J. Wenham (1994). New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition. (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press)

 

 

Gordon J. Wenham (1994), Genesis 16-50, vol. 2, Word Biblical Commentary (Dallas: Word, Incorporated), pp. 3-13.

 

 

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