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jackyjoy123
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Hello,

 

I know that the Inscriptions Index module relates to the Northwest Semitic Inscriptions (INSNWS).

 

But in that full Inscriptions package, there is also another set of inscriptions, in the INSCRIP module. I would like to know the provenance of some of these texts and wonder if anyone can recommend a source. I assume there's not a separate Accordance source like the index to the NW Semitic inscriptions?

 

I admit up front that I've never done any work with inscriptions before, but I'm beating the bushes for any background information that I can use in my dissertation. Having found a couple of interesting passages, I can't simply include them in my research without knowing what they are or where they came from.

 

 

thanks

jackyjoy

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INSNWS: Notes on the Northwest Semitic Inscriptions

 

November 2004

 

 

Introduction

 

The Northwest Semitic Inscription module is a work in progress. This text is supervised by William M. Schniedewind and has relied heavily on graduate students at UCLA, including Robert Duke, Grace Park, Matthew Suriano, Roger Nam, and Moise Isaac. The current module includes all the major Northwest Semitic (NWS) inscriptions dating to the Iron Age (1200–586 BCE), and uses the numbering from the new edition by Herbert Donner and Wolfgang Röllig, Kanaanäische und Aramäische Inschriften, Volume 1 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2002) [=KAI].

 

 

Suggestions and Corrections can be e-mailed or sent regular mail to:

 

William Schniedewind <WilliamS@ucla.edu>

UCLA

Dept. of Near Eastern Languages & Cultures

Kinsey 376, MC 151105

Los Angeles, CA 90095–1511

 

 

Index to KAI Numbers, Names and Dates

 

In this Accordance module, the “book” name is a combination of the word “KAI” followed by the number listed below. Most inscriptions will have one “chapter,” but some inscriptions may have several parts represented by separate “chapters”. Each “verse” following the colon represents the line number of the inscription.

 

Since all of the NWS inscriptions in this module uses the numbering system of KAI, the index below gives the name and date of each inscription corresponding to the KAI number.

 

1 Byblos 1000 B.C.

2 Byblos 1000 B.C.

3 Bronze Spatula 10th century B.C.

4 Yehimilk 10th century B.C.

5 Abibaal 925 B.C.

6 Elibaal 900 B.C.

7 Sipitbaal 10th century BCE

8 Abdo 900 BCE

21 el-Hadar 12–11th century BCE

22 Lebanon

23 Hassan-Beyli 8th–7th century BCE

24 Kilamuwa 825 BCE

25 Kilamuwa 9th century BCE

26 Azitawada (Karatepe) 720 BCE

27 Arslan Tash I 7th century BCE

29 Ur 7th century BCE

30 Cyprus 9th century BCE

50 Saqqara 6th century BCE

181 Mesha 850 BCE

201 Bar-Hadad 9th century BCE

202 Zakkur (Afis) 8th century B. C.

203 Hamath 9-8th century BCE

204 Hamath 9-8th century BCE

205 Hamath 9-8th century BCE

206 Hamath 9-8th century BCE

207 Hamath 9-8th century BCE

208 Hamath 9-8th century BCE

209 Hamath 9-8th century BCE

210 Hamath 9-8th century BCE

211 Hamath 9-8th century BCE

212 Hamath 9-8th century BCE

213 Hamath 9-8th century BCE

214 Panammuwa I (Zinjirli) 8th century B. C.

215 Panammuwa II (Zinjirli) 8th century BCE

216 Barrakib (Zinjirli) 733/2 or 727 B.C

217 Barrakib (Zinjirli) 733/2 or 727 B.C

218 Barrakib (Zinjirli) 733/2 or 727 B.C

219 Barrakib (Zinjirli) 733/2 or 727 B.C

220 Barrakib (Zinjirli) 733/2 or 727 B.C

221 Barrakib (Zinjirli) 733/2 or 727 B.C

222 Sefire 8th century BCE

223 Sefire 8th century BCE

224 Sefire 8th century BCE

225 Nerab 7th century BCE

226 Nerab 7th century BCE

231 Tell Halaf 10th -9th century BCE

232 Arslan Tash 9th century BCE

233 Assur (ostracon) 7th century BCE

234 Assur (tablet) 7th century BCE

235 Assur (tablet) 7th century BCE

236 Assur (tablet) 7th century BCE

266 Saqqara (609–594) 7th -6t century

 

(The following numbers appear in the new edition of KAI)

286 Tel Miqne (Ekron) 7th century BCE

309 Tell Fekhariyeh 9th century BCE

310 Tell Dan 9th century BCE

312 Deir Alla 9th–8th century BCE

 

 

Explanation

 

A few brief explanatory comments will aid in the use of this module.

 

1. The text of the inscriptions has been tagged using the Michigan-Westminster grammatical tagging scheme, which is also used by the Accordance BHS-W4 (Hebrew Bible) text module. At this stage of the database, the grammatical tagging focuses on identifying roots and classifying them as nouns and verbs.

 

2. Given the fragmentary nature of the NWS inscriptions, we offer reconstructions whenever they are available in KAI or other sources. The text and reconstructions generally follow KAI, but we also used Fitzmyer’s edition of the Sefire inscriptions and made use of Gibson and Ahituv. The initial plan is to create an electronic edition based on a standard text. At this point, we have also not consistently marked the inscriptions with the convention scholarly circlets ° or dots to indicate the probablity of readings. We have relied mostly on published transcriptions in KAI and have not routinely checked photographs or digital images for uncertain readings. This may done at a final stage of the revisions. The intention is to provide a useful grammatically tagged edition of NWS inscriptions.

 

3. Whenever possible the lexical forms found in The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament by Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner (Leiden: Brill: Leiden, 2000) [=HAL]. Thus, in the Fekhariyeh inscription the word ‏עסר‎ “wealth” is given the lemma ‏עשׁר‎ because it is related to this entry in HAL. This is essentially done to take advantage of the resources available in Accordance. There are many NWS words in the Inscriptions which are not used in the Bible, and therefore will not be found in HAL, BDB, Jenni-Westermann, or other Hebrew Bible Lexicons.

 

4. Given the lack of vocalization, there is much more opportunity for alternate readings and analyses in the INSCR-NWS corpus than in the Hebrew Bible. As a result, opinions on analysis will frequently differ. The parsing offered here is minimal and concentrates on identifying roots so that word searches can be done. Fuller grammatical tagging should follow in subsequent years.

 

5. A few additional characters have been incorporated to represent various characteristics of the transcription of ancient inscriptions.

 

‏·‎ A dot “‏·‎” is often employed to divide words in ancient inscriptions.

 

‏<<>>‎ Angle brackets offer the modern editors’ suggested corrections to missing or errant text.

 

‏[ ] Brackets indicate reconstructions.

 

° a single small circle indicates an uncertain letter trace, while a circle over a letter indicates a damaged character with an uncertain reading. A small dot over the letter indicates a damaged character with a reading of one of two letters.

 

--- a triple hyphen is used to indicate visually a break in the inscription and the lack of viable reconstruction. It also serves the purpose of separating non-adjacent words in the data so that they are at least one word apart, and not viewed by the search engine as if they were side by side.

 

6. The search “field” or “context” follows a Biblical analogy as described above with the KAI numbers. KAI immediately followed by its number is like a book, and each part of the inscription (or ostracon) is like a chapter, and each line is like a verse.

 

Therefore, if the search “field” in Accordance is set to “Verse”, then word relationships in INSNWS will be found for words in the same line. Likewise, if the search “field” in Accordance is set to “Chapter”, then word relationships in INSCR-NWS will be found for words in the same part of the inscription or ostracon (e.g., KAI26 AI ). Likewise, if the search “field” in Accordance is set to “Book”, then word relationships in INSCR-NWS will be found for words in the same inscription or ostracon (e.g., KAI26). I would recommend that the default search “field” be set to “Chapter.”

 

 

Resources

 

The following sources were used for the NWS inscriptions:

 

Shmuel Ahituv. Handbook of Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions. Jerusalem: Bialik, 1992. [Hebrew]

 

H. Donner and W. Röllig, Kanaanäische und Aramäische Inschriften. 3 volumes (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1968).

 

H. Donner and W. Röllig, Kanaanäische und Aramäische Inschriften, volume 1 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2002).

 

J. A. Fitzmyer, The Aramaic Inscriptions of Sefire ; (Revised ed; Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1995).

 

Gibson, J. C. L. Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions. Volumes 2 and 3. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975, 1982.

 

Hackett, Jo Ann. The Balaam Text from Deir Alla. Chino, CA: Scholars, 1984.

 

Hallo, William W., and K. Lawson Jr. Younger. The Context of Scripture. Volume 2: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

 

J. B. Pritchard, ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts (2nd ed; Princeton University Press, 1955).

 

J. Tropper, Die Inscriften von Zincirli (Münster: Ugarit Verlag, 1993).

 

 

 

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INSCRIP: Notes on the Hebrew Inscriptions

 

November 2008

 

 

Introduction

 

The Hebrew inscription text module is a work in progress. This text is supervised by William M. Schniedewind and has relied heavily on graduate students at UCLA, including Robert Duke, Grace Park, Matthew Suriano, Roger Nam, Moise Isaac, and Ryan Roberts. Martin G. Abegg, Jr. has also assisted in further revisions.

 

The current INSCRIP module includes all the major Hebrew inscriptions dating to the Iron Age (1200–586 BCE), and all the minor and fragmentary Hebrew inscriptions. Transcriptions follow the original publications, while the names, abbreviations, and number of the inscriptions are based on Hebrew Inscriptions: Texts from the Biblical Period of the Monarchy, edited by F. W. Dobbs-Allsop, J. J. M. Roberts, C. L. Seow, and R. E. Whitaker (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004). The seals are based on Corpus of West Semitic Seals, by Nahman Avigad (revised and completed by Benjamin Sass; Israel Exploration Society, 1997).

 

Suggestions and corrections can be e-mailed or sent regular mail to:

 

William Schniedewind <WilliamS@ucla.edu>

UCLA

Dept. of Near Eastern Languages & Cultures

Humanities 378, MC 151105

Los Angeles, CA 90095–1511

 

 

Inscription Names

 

Hebrew inscriptions are named according to the location where the inscription was found; non-provenanced inscriptions are labelled according to the owner or publisher of the inscription and marked with *, as indicated below. For convenience the Accordance search engine can display either the full name in the left column or a somewhat shorter abbreviation.

 

Amal Tel Amal

Arad Arad

Areni Tel Areni

Aroer Aroer

Avigad* Avigad

Batash Tel Batash

Beersheba Beersheba

Bethsaida Bethsaida

Bethshean Bethshean

BLei Khirbet Beit Lei

BMir Tel Beit Mirsim

Dan Tel Dan

EnGd En-Gedi

Esht Eshtemoa

Gezer Gezer

Gibeon Gibeon

Ham Tel el-Hammah

Hazor Hazor

Hesi Tel Hesi

Ira Tel Ira

Jerusalem Jerusalem

KAjr Kuntillet Ajrud

KBar Kadesh-Barnea

KHinnom Ketef Hinnom

Lachish Lachish

Mareshah Mareshah

Megiddo Megiddo

MHsh Mesad Hashavyahu

Moussaieff* Moussaieff

Mur 1 Papyrus Wadi Murabbat 17a

Mur 2 Papyrus Wadi Murabbat 17b

Nasbeh Tell en-Nasbeh

Naveh Naveh

Nimrud Nimrud

NYishai Nahal Yishai

Oreimeh Tell el-Oreimeh

Pomegranate* Pomegranate Inscription

Qasile Tel Qasile

Qom Khirbet el-Qom

RRahel Ramat Rahel

Samaria Samaria

Samaria 117 Samaria Basalt

Siloam Siloam Tunnel

Silwan Silwan

Susa Susa

Uza Horvat Uza

Zayit Zayit

Seals Seals

 

 

 

Explanation

 

A few brief explanatory comments will aid in the use of this module.

 

1. The text of the inscriptions has been tagged using the Michigan-Westminster grammatical tagging scheme, which is also used by the Accordance BHS-W4 (Hebrew Bible) text module.

 

2. Given the fragmentary nature of the Hebrew inscriptions, we have decided to offer viable reconstructions whenever possible. All reconstructions should be treated as such and used with care. At this point, we have also not consistently marked the inscriptions with the convention scholarly circlets ° or dots to indicate the probability of readings. We have relied mostly on published transcriptions and have not routinely checked photographs or digital images for uncertain readings. This will be done during the second stage of the revisions. The initial project is to provide a complete grammatically tagged concordance of Hebrew and the Northwest Semitic inscriptions.

 

3. Whenever possible the lexical forms incorporated in the analysis of the current HMT text module have also been used in the INSCRIP module. This will enable searches to be conducted using both modules concurrently. There are several Hebrew words in the Inscriptions which are not used in the Hebrew Bible, and therefore will not be found in BDB, K-B, Jenni-Westermann, or other Hebrew Bible Lexicons.

 

4. Given the lack of vocalization, there is much more opportunity for alternate analysis (parsing) in the Inscriptions corpus than in the Hebrew Bible. As a result, opinions on analysis will occasionally differ.

 

5. A few additional characters have been incorporated to represent various characteristics of the transcription of ancient inscriptions.

 

‏·‎ A dot “‏·‎” is often employed to divide words in ancient inscriptions.

 

<<>> Angle brackets offer the modern editors’ suggested corrections to missing or errant text.

 

‏[ ]‎ Brackets indicate reconstructions.

 

° A single small circle indicates an uncertain letter trace, while a circle over a letter indicates a damaged character with an uncertain reading. A small dot over the letter indicates a damaged character with a reading of one of two letters.

 

--- a triple hyphen is used to indicate visually a break in the inscription and the lack of viable reconstruction. It also serves the purpose of separating non-adjacent words in the data so that they are at least one word apart, and not viewed by the search engine as if they were side by side.

 

6. The search “field” or “context” follows a Biblical analogy. That is, each group of inscriptions from a site (like the Lachish Letters) is like a book, and each individual inscription (or ostracon) is like a chapter, and each line is like a verse.

 

Therefore, if the search “field” in Accordance is set to “Verse”, then word relationships in INSCRIP will be found for words in the same line. Likewise, if the search “field” in Accordance is set to “Chapter”, then word relationships in INSCRIP will be found for words in the same inscription or ostracon (e.g., Lachish Ostracon 3). Therefore, if the search “field” in Accordance is set to “Book”, then word relationships in INSCRIP will be found for words in the same group of inscriptions (e.g., the Lachish Letters). I would recommend that the default search “field” be set to “Chapter” since the inscription lines are often quite short.

 

7. User-defined ranges can be used to search groups of inscriptions, or any combination of individual inscriptions or lines.

 

8. Abbreviations are encoded in the Hebrew text with the ‏׳‎ apostrophe (as in ‏ב׳‎) and translated with parentheses as in b(ath). Hieratic numerals in the inscriptions are shown using Arabic numerals, which are always translated into the English using Arabic numerals. Thus, Arad 1:3, ‏יין · ב׳ 3‎ is “3 b(aths) of wine,” but ‏ובעוד · שלש · אמת is “and while there were still three cubits.”

 

 

Resources

 

The readings for the Hebrew inscriptions relied on the following works:

 

Aharoni, Yohanan. Arad Inscriptions. Jerusalem: IES, 1981.

 

Davies, Graham. Hebrew Inscriptions: Corpus and Concordance. 2 volumes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991–2004.

 

Dobbs-Allsopp, F. W., J. J. M. Roberts, C. L. Seow, and R. E. Whitaker, Hebrew Inscriptions: Texts from the Biblical Period of the Monarchy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.

 

Gibson, J. C. L. Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions. Volume 1 (Hebrew and Moabite). Oxford: Clarendon, 1971.

 

Gogel, Sandra. A Grammar of Epigraphic Hebrew, SBL Resources for Biblical Study 23. Atlanta: Scholars, 1998.

 

Hallo, William W., and K. Lawson Jr. Younger. The Context of Scripture. Volume 2: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

 

Pardee, Dennis. Handbook of Ancient Hebrew Letters. Atlanta: Scholars, 1982.

 

Renz, Johannes. Die Althebräischen Inscriften. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1995.

 

 

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I took this module over from Bill Schiedewind about 10 years ago. Any corrections should be directed my way. 

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  • 3 months later...
On 4/13/2021 at 5:29 PM, jackyjoy123 said:

Hello,

 

I know that the Inscriptions Index module relates to the Northwest Semitic Inscriptions (INSNWS).

 

But in that full Inscriptions package, there is also another set of inscriptions, in the INSCRIP module. I would like to know the provenance of some of these texts and wonder if anyone can recommend a source. I assume there's not a separate Accordance source like the index to the NW Semitic inscriptions?

 

I admit up front that I've never done any work with inscriptions before, but I'm beating the bushes for any background information that I can use in my dissertation. Having found a couple of interesting passages, I can't simply include them https://krogerfeedback.nl https://talktosonic.onl https://talktowendys.vip https://whataburgersurvey.onl in my research without knowing what they are or where they came from.

 

 

thanks

jackyjoy

 

thanks for the awesome information.

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