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  1. In the language of the Greek syntax module, a circumstantial clause is an Adjunct Clause, and one that is part of a Predicate Phrase, as it is an Adjunct to a Predicate. A Genitive Absolute, that we have already dealt with, is a kind of circumstantial Clause. It is also a participial Clause, so that a Genitive Absolute is always a participial circumstantial Clause, even if it is not the only kind of participial circumstantial Clauses. There is also another kind, that consists of conjunctive Participles. In other words, in circumstantial Clauses, a Participle may be either conjunctive or absolute. That is, it either agrees with the Subject (whether overt or covert) of the superordinate clause, or it doesn't. When it doesn't agree, it is found in Genitive: hence the name of Genitive Absolute. When it agrees, it is found in Nominative, that is, in the same case as the Subject: hence we have a Conjunctive Participle. As we already know how to search for a Genitive Absolute, we will now search for a Nominative Participle that is the verb of a Circumstantial Clause, that in turn is part of a Predicate Phrase. The steps are as follows: Open a new Search Text, choose GNT28-T as search text, and choose to search for Words Go to the upper right of the Window and click + plus twice in order to bring out the Scope of the Search Choose Scope: Chapter or Book (not Verse, etc) Open a new Greek Constuct (Command-2), that will be automatically linked to the Search Text In the Greek Construct window, drag the Phrase element and drop it into the first column When prompted, choose Predicate Phrase Drag the Clause item and drop it into the first column, within the PREDICATE PHRASE When prompted, choose Dependent Clause only and then Adjunct Drag the Verb element and drop it into the first column of the Adjun. DEPENDENT Clause When prompted, choose Mood: participle and then Case: Nominative Press Return, or click on the search button. The results are as follows: It is apparent that the search actually finds conjunctive Participles, which are anarthrous, as the two Participles in Matthew 1:19 δίκαιος ὢν καὶ μὴ θέλων. This is what we expected. The search is now more precise than it was in 2011.
  2. In Greek, some conjunctions can be used with different kinds of dependent Clauses. This is the case with ὅτι, that is found in Complement, Subject, Appositive, or Adjunct Clauses. An Adjunct Clause introduced by ὅτι is usually a causal Clause. Thanks to the syntax add-on to GNT28-T, we can easily sort out the ὅτι Clauses according to their syntactical function. We will need to prepare four different searches. We will search first for Adjunct Clauses introduced by ὅτι. We will proceed as follows: Open a new Search Text window, choose GNT28-T as search text Click two times on the + to upper right of the Search Text, and choose to search for Words (not Verses) within every Chapter or Book (not Verse, etc) Open a new Greek Construct window (Command-2), that will be automatically linked with the Search Text In the Greek Construct window, drag the green item CLAUSE and drop it into the first column When prompted, choose Dependent clause only, then Adjunct, then click OK or press Return Drag the blue LEX item and drop it into the first column When prompted, go to ὅτι, then click OK or press Return Press Return or click on the Search button to perform the search The results will look like this: We have found Adjunct Clauses introduced by ὅτι. Such clauses are causal.
  3. Marco V. Fabbri

    Search for Result Clauses

    If you have the syntax module, the search for Result Clauses is made easier. Within the books that are ready, you will be able to find all the instances of dependent clause that start with ὥστε. You need to: open a Search window and set it to GNT28-T go to right top of the Search Window and press +, until an option to select the Scope appears select Chapter or Book open a new Greek Construct window, that will be linked with the main Search window in the Construct window, select a green Clause item from the left column and drop it into the blank space you will be prompted to choose what kind of clause you want: select dependent and adjunct select a blue LEX item and drop it into the Clause, choosing the first column of the Clause when prompted, enter ὥστε press Return or hit the search button The result will look like this: If you want the Clause Verb to be in the Infinitive Mood only, you will need to modify the previous search, adding the following select a purple Verb item and drop it into the second column of the Clause Adjun. DEPENDENT Clause when prompted, select Mood: Infinitive press Return or hit the search button If you want the Clause Verb to be in the Indicative Mood only, you will need to modify the previous search, adding the following select a purple Verb item and drop it into the second column of the Adjun. DEPENDENT Clause when prompted, select Mood: Indicative press Return or hit the search button
  4. Marco V. Fabbri

    New search for Conditional Clauses

    In Accordance, even without the syntax add-on the GNT-T module allows us to search for conjunctions: in the Search Text window, we can enter a group of conjunctions, let's say conditional conjunctions. We may write by hand: ει <OR> εαν <OR> ειπερ Or we may use the "Enter Tag" search command, as follows: Open the Search Text window From the Menu Search, select Enter Tag, then choose Conjunction When prompted, select Subclass conditional, then press Return or click OK Press Return or click on the Search button to perform the search The results will show all the verses that contain one of the conditional conjunctions. In order to know what conjunctions were found, we can click on the Details menu, and choose Analysis. Now enters the syntax add-on. In the GNT-T syntax add-on, circumstantial (also called adverbial) Clauses are an important subset of Adjunct Clauses, namely those that depend on a Predicate Phrase. Among circumstantial Clauses we can find such well-known sub-classes of Clauses as causal Clauses, temporal Clauses, purpose Clauses, result Clauses, and so on. Using the Greek Construct window, the syntax allows us to have a conditional conjunction introduce an Adjunct Dependent Clause. The conjunction will be the first element of the Clause. We will build the search as follows: Open a new Search Text, choose GNT28-T as search text, and choose to search for Words (not Verses) within every Chapter or Book (not Verse, etc) Open a new Greek Construct (Command-2), that will be automatically linked with the Search Text In the Greek Construct window, select the green Syntax item CLAUSE, drag and drop it into the first column When prompted, choose Dependent clause only, then Adjunct only Select the purple item Conj, then drag and drop it into the first column of the Adjun. Dependent Clause When prompted, choose Subclass: conditional, then click OK or press Return Press Return or click on the Search button to perform the search The results will look like this:
  5. Without the syntax, we could search for an Accusative and an Infinitive, but we would have hit any Accusative, not only those that are subject of a clause. Most of them would be complements, not subject. By involving the syntax in the search, we can specify that we only want those Accusatives that are also Subject. Searches for the Accusative and Infinitive in the GNT28-T syntax can be at the same time powerful and easy to prepare. They can be performed in the Search Text window alone, or in the Greek construct window. The Greek construct is necessary when we want the elements of the search to belong to the same Clause. I. Searching for Subject Accusatives and Infinitives in the Search text In the Search Text window, we need to enter: [subject] @ [ANY accusative]<AND>[VERB infinitive] The search can be entered manually, or can be copied and pasted, or can be built step by step using the Menu Search: Enter Tag. The results will look like this: If we examine the results, we will see many good hits, and it will be apparent that the Accusative and Infinitive has many different uses. We will also notice that some hits don't actually contain any Accusative and Infinitive. So is the second hit: Matthew 3:7, which is not relevant. Here the Accusative πολλούς and the Infinitive φυγεῖν do not belong to the same Clause. As Accordance searched in any verse, it just happened to find a Subject Accusative and an Infinitive in the same verse. If we want to make sure that the Accusative and the Infinitive belong to the same Clause, we will need the Greek Construct window. II. Searching for Accusative and Infinitive in any Dependent Clause The steps will be: Open a new Search Text, choose GNT28-T as search text, and set the search to WORDS (not VERSES) Click on the + mark in the upper right corner, to reveal more options Click again on the + mark in the upper right corner, to reveal even more options, and set the Scope to Chapter or Book (not Verse, Clause, Sentence, or Paragraph) Open a new Greek Construct (Command-2), that will be automatically linked with the Search Text In the Greek Construct window, choose the green CLAUSE item, drag and drop it into the first column When prompted, choose Dependent Clause only, then Any, then click OK (or press Return) Choose the purple Verb item and drop it into the first column of the DEPENDENT Clause When prompted, choose Mood: Infinitive, then click OK (or press Return) Choose the purple Subject item and drop it into the second column of the DEPENDENT Clause When prompted, choose Simple, then click OK (or press Return) Choose the purple ANY item and drop it into the same column that already contains the Subject element When prompted, type Accusative, then click OK Select the box Search both directions, in the right lower corner of the window (we do so that it doesn't matter whether the Subject is found before the Infinitive, or the Infinitive is found before the Subject). Press Return, or click on the Search button. The result will look like this: If we examine the results, we will see that the number of hits has decreased. The non-relevant hits are gone. We will also notice again the many different uses of the Accusative and Infinitive, and we may now narrow the search to Complement Clauses, or to Subject Clauses, or to Adjunct Clauses. Let's try all of them. III. Searching for Accusative and Infinitive in Complement Dependent Clauses We can use the existing search and modify it. The steps will be: In the Greek Construct window, double-click on the green DEPENDENT element When prompted to Select type of clause, choose Complement, then click OK (or press Return) Press Return, or click on the Search button. The result will look like this: If we examine the results we will find that some of the Clauses are Complement of a Predicate, such as Matthew 8:22; 13:30; 14:19; 14:28, 16:13; etc. These are the most characteristic Accusative with infinitive Clauses. But we will also find some Clauses that are Complement to a preposition, such as Matthew 6:8; 13:4; 13:25; etc. IV. Searching for Accusative and Infinitive in Subject Dependent Clauses An Accusative and Infinitive construct may be found also as a Subject Dependent Clause. We can use the existing search and modify it. The steps will be: In the Greek Construct window, double-click on the green DEPENDENT element When prompted to Select type of clause, choose Subject, then click OK (or press Return) Press Return, or click on the search button. The result will look like this: If we examine the results, we will find that the Subject Clause works as the subject of δεῖ, or καλόν ἐστιν, or ἀνάγκη (ἐστίν understood), etc. V. Searching for Accusative and Infinitive in Adjunct Dependent Clauses An Accusative and Infinitive construct may be found also as an Adjunct Dependent Clause. This can happen in some Adverbial Clauses. Among them, we find some Clauses that we use to call Result Clauses, because of the semantics of the conjunction ὥστε that introduces them. Or we find Clauses that we call (Subsequent) Time Clauses, because of the semantics of the conjunction πρίν that introduces them. We can use the existing search and modify it. The steps will be: In the Greek Construct window, double-click on the green DEPENDENT element When prompted to Select the type of dependent clause, choose Adjunct only, then click OK (or press Return) Press Return, or click on the search button. The result will look like this: If we examine the results, we notice a few a (Subsequent) Time Clauses (Matthew 1:18; 26:34; 26:75), and several Result Clauses (Matthew 8:24; 8:28; 12:22; 13:2; 13:32; etc.) VI. Searching for Accusative and Infinitive in Apposition Dependent Clauses An Accusative and Infinitive construct may be found also as an Apposition Dependent Clause. We can use the existing search and modify it. The steps will be: In the Greek Construct window, double-click on the green DEPENDENT item When prompted to Select the type of dependent clause, choose Apposition only, then click OK (or press Return) Press Return, or click on the search button. The result will look like this: The results also include Ephesians, 1Thessalonians and Hebrews that I haven't released yet.
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